Seeds of South Australia
Themeda triandra (Gramineae)
Kangaroo Grass (Ilintji)
List of species for Themeda
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Seed collecting:
December to May
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Near Threatened
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Near Threatened
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern   [Goats a threat]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern   [Goats a threat]
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern   [higher rainfall]
Talia (EYB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [localised]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Near Threatened
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Least Concern
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [lack of habitat]
Kintore (GVD04)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern   [Goats a threat]
Dieri (SSD03)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Data Deficient   [imprecise location; 1 old record]
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [grazed by cattle]
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Baltana (STP07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [grazed by cattle]
Lake Pure (CHC07) 
 Near Threatened
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Least Concern
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Least Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Least Concern
Pedirka (FIN04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooLeast Concern
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
4 of 8 subregionsGawlerRare
Kintore (GVD04)Great Victoria DesertLeast Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
  [Goats a threat]
2 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsRare
, Data Deficient
6 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
, Rare
3 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
3 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsFinkeLeast Concern
, Rare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Themeda]
Name derivation:
Themeda from the Arabic 'thaemed' meaning little water (or refers to a depression in which water lies after rain and dries in summer); possibly referring to the water storage cells on the upper surface of the leaves or to the habitat in Yemen where the type specimen for Themeda was collected. Triandra from the Greek 'treis' meaning three and 'andros' meaning man; referring to a stemless hermaphrodite spikelet which is surrounded by three male spikelets.
Distribution:
Found across South Australia, except in the south-western part, growing in grassland and open woodland communities. Also found in all  Australian states, Asia, Africa and the Pacific region.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
A densely tufted, leafy perennial grass to 1 m tall with sharply keeled leaves and large spikelets, often blue green when actively growing and reddish at maturity. Flowers throughout the year but mainly between October and March.
Fruit type:
Reddish-brown loose, interrupted, often drooping panicle to 250 mm long.
Seed type:
Dark brown, shiny seed to 10 mm long and 1 mm wide (excluding the awn) with a sharp base and collar of hairs. Contain a long narrow yellow ovoid grain.
Embryo type:
Lateral.
Seed collecting:
Use your hands to gently strip seeds off the mature seed spike that are drying off and turning brown or alternatively, you can break off the whole seed spike.
Seed cleaning:
Place the seeds/spike in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. No further cleaning is required if only seed collected. If seed spikes collected, use hand to strip off the mature seeds. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
Seed viability can be low for this species especially if seeds are harvested before they are ripe.
Seed germination:
Viable seeds will germinate without any treatment, 100% viable seeds were selected using an x-ray image and 90% germinated within 11 weeks at spring temperatures.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Mar-1596%7 d14 d caryopsis excised, 10% smoke water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-1596%7 d7 d caryopsis excised, 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-1596%7 d14 d caryopsis excised;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-1594%7 d14 d caryopsis excised, 250 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-1590%14 d14 d
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-1590%14 d14 d
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-1548%7 dNA 250 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-1548%7 dNA 10% smoke water + 250 mg/mL gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Nov-1342%7 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Oct-1440%7 dNA 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h, 10% smoke water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Nov-1334%7 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-1534%14 dNA 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-1534%14 dNA 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Nov-1332%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Nov-1332%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under summer conditions
Mar-1530%14 dNA 10% smoke water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-1530%14 dNA 10% smoke water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Oct-1426%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Nov-1324%7 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Nov-1320%7 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under summer conditions
Oct-1414%7 dNA dry heat 90°C oven 15 min, 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h, 10% smoke water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Oct-146%14 dNA 250 mg/L gibberellic acid 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)