Seeds of South Australia
Triglochin isingiana (Juncaginaceae)
Long-spurred Arrowgrass
List of species for Triglochin
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Seed collecting:
September to November
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Central Flinders (FLB06)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [comes up in floods; localised; habitat specific]
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Near Threatened   [doesn't need much rain]
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [undercollected]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [not much known, taxo changes]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [undercollected]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [undercollected]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Near Threatened   [comes up in floods; localised; habitat specific]
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Warriner (SSD04)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Near Threatened   [comes up in floods; localised; habitat specific]
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [comes up in floods; localised; habitat specific]
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern
Witjira (STP06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Coongie (CHC06)Channel Country
 Least Concern   [comes up in floods; localised; habitat specific]
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Near Threatened
Watarru (CER02) 
 Near Threatened   [specific habitat]
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Near Threatened
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Central Flinders (FLB06)Flinders Lofty BlockRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [comes up in floods; localised; habitat specific]
3 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionRare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [undercollected]
5 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
3 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Rare
Yalata (NUL03)NullarborLeast Concern
Warriner (SSD04)Simpson Strzelecki DunefieldsNear Threatened
  [comes up in floods; localised; habitat specific]
3 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
, Rare
Coongie (CHC06)Channel CountryLeast Concern
  [comes up in floods; localised; habitat specific]
3 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesNear Threatened
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Triglochin]
Name derivation:
Triglochin from the Greek 'treis' meaning three and 'glochis' meaning a point; referring to its three-sided carpels. Isingana named after Ernest Horace Ising (1884-1973), an Adelaide born railways clerk and botanist, who devoted the best part of his life to the study of botany and plant collecting especially in South Australia including the type specimen from Coglin Creek, Central Australia in 1931.
Distribution:
Found across south Australia, growing on temporarily damp soil in a variety of habitats. Also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Slender annual herb to 17 cm high. Leaves flat and thread-like, to 9 cm long, shorter than or as long as the inflorescence. Inflorescence erect or ascending, to 9 cm long with the fruiting part at the top to 2 cm long with 6–16 fruits. Flowering between August and October.
Fruit type:
Straw-coloured (sometime tinged purple) narrowly pyramid fruit to 7 mm long and 1.2 mm wide just on a short stalk with six seed segments (carpels), 3 fertile alternating with 3 undeveloped sterile ones. 
Seed type:
Straw-coloured (sometime tinged purple) narrow wedge-shaped seed to 7 mm long and 0.5 mm wide, with 2 lateral recurved to upcurved spurs to 1.5 mm long at the base.
Embryo type:
Linear.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature fruits either by breaking off individual spikes or by removing plants that are drying off with fruits that are straw-colour and seed segments coming apart easily.
Seed cleaning:
Place the fruit spikes in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks. Then rub the dried fruit spikes with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1777%728 dry heat 100°C oven for 10 min, 30% hydrogen peroxide for 20 min, water rinse, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 44 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1740%28NA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 20 min, water rinse, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 44 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-170%NANA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 20 min, water rinse, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 44 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-170%NANA dry heat 100°C oven for 10 min, 30% hydrogen peroxide for 20 min, water rinse, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 44 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-170%NANA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 20 min, water rinse, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 44 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under summer conditions
Jul-170%NANA dry heat 100°C oven for 10 min, 30% hydrogen peroxide for 20 min, water rinse, 500 mg/L gibberellic acid for 44 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under summer conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)