Seeds of South Australia
Triodia scariosa (Gramineae)
Porcupine Grass
List of species for Triodia
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Seed collecting:
December to March
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Nullarbor, Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Glenelg Plain (NCP02)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Near Threatened
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [difficult to ID Triodias]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [difficult to ID Triodias]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Near Threatened
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [likely to be locally extinct]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [likely to be locally extinct]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [limited habitat]
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Carlisle (NUL01)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Least Concern
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Near Threatened
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
2 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainNear Threatened
, Vulnerable
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [difficult to ID Triodias]
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
4 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Endangered
5 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Endangered
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
4 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
3 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
Carlisle (NUL01)NullarborLeast Concern
3 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
Tieyon (FIN03)FinkeRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Triodia]
Name derivation:
Triodia from the Greek 'treis' meaning three and 'odous' meaning tooth; referring to the 3-toothed or 3-lobed lemmas. Scariosa means thin, dry.
Distribution:
Found throughout much of South Australia on a wide range of soils in mallee, on creek beds, banks and swamp margins. Also found in all mainland states except for the Northern Territory.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Tussock and hummock-forming perennial 1m high x 2 m wide, which may become ring-like or crescentic when old. Leaf blades straight, aciculate, conduplicate, 4–27cm long, 0.7–2 mm wide, glabrous. Inflorescence a narrow but loose panicle. Spikelets 4-9-flowered, linear or lanceolate, 9-16 mm long. Flowering July - April.
Fruit type:
Glumes 5–10 mm long, acute or obtuse, keeled, often lightly scabrous, glabrous. Lemmas 4.5–7 mm long, emarginate.
Seed type:
Seeds, brown, ellipsoid, 2.5mm long, 1mm wide.
Seed collecting:
Seed is collected opportunisitically with seed production dependent on rainfall. Remove seed by cutting the stalks below the dried flowers.
Seed cleaning:
Clean seed by rubbing the grain through a sieve and aspirating the chaff.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
May-1396%7 d7 d dry heat 90°C oven 15min, aerosol smoke 15min;
1% agar with 250mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under summer conditions
May-1386%7 d7 d dry heat 90°C oven 15min, aerosol smoke 15min;
1% agar;
Incubated under summer conditions
May-1348%7 dNA aerosol smoke 15 min;
1% agar;
Incubated under summer conditions
May-1342%7 dNA aerosol smoke 15 min;
1% agar with 250mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under summer conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)