Seeds of South Australia
Velleia connata (Goodeniaceae)
Stout Velleia
List of species for Velleia
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Seed collecting:
November to February
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Murray
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Northern Flinders (FLB05)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [limited habitat]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [Wilpena Pd; limited habitat]
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [edge of range]
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [comes up after fire]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Near Threatened   [comes up after fire; undercollected]
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Near Threatened   [comes up after fire; undercollected]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
2 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockVulnerable
2 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionRare
, Vulnerable
, Endangered
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))
2 of 8 subregionsGawlerRare
3 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central RangesNear Threatened
  [comes up after fire; undercollected]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Velleia]
Name derivation:
Velleia named after Thomas Velley (1748-1806), an English botanist . Connata meaning fused together; referring to the fused bracteoles around the flower.
Distribution:
Discontinuous distribution from the far north-west to the south-east in South Australia, often growing in drier grassland, mulga and mallee communities on sandy soils. Also found in all mainly States.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Rare in Victoria. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Annual herb to 90cm high. Leaves oblanceolate to spathulate, denticulate to lyrate-pinnatipartite, green, glabrous, to 20 cm long and 8 cm wide forming a rosette. Inflorescence a scape to 60 cm high, bracteoles fused into a cup. Flower yellow, brown-yellow or white to pink, often with mauve markings. Flowering between September and January.
Fruit type:
Brown compressed-ovoid, 4-valved capsule to 8 mm long, glabrous or subglabrous with a minute mucro.
Seed type:
Brown, flat, broad-elliptic to orbicular seed to 6 mm in diameter, with a pointy end and wing around the margin.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect pods that are maturing, turning brown, easily split open and with brown seeds inside.
Seed cleaning:
Place the pods in a tray and leave to dry for a week. Then rub the pods with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
6400 (12 g)
6400 (21 g)
30-407-Dec-2010DJD2017
Murray
1-Jan-2012100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
May-1112%21 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-112%63 dNA
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under winter conditions
May-110%NANA
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-110%NANA
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under winter conditions
May-110%NANA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-110%NANA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)