Seeds of South Australia
Villarsia reniformis (Menyanthaceae)
Running Marsh-flower
List of species for Villarsia
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Seed collecting:
December to May
Herbarium regions:
Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Kangaroo Island, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Least Concern
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Near Threatened
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Least Concern
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Data Deficient   [odd record]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Near Threatened   [likes peaty swamps; not many records but in protected areas]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [likes peaty swamps; Southern Emuwren program is helping to fence peat swamps, benefiting this sp.]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   (Probable Decline)   [likes peaty swamps]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [needs wet conditions; limited habitat]
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Villarsia]
Name derivation:
Vallarsia named after Dominique Villars (1745-1814), a French botanist and physician. Reniformis from Latin meaning kidney shaped; referring to the shape of its leaves. 
Found on Kangaroo Island, southern Mount Lofty Ranges and the South-east in South Australia, growing in still fresh water in permanent or near-permanent swamps or temporarily inundated depressions. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Native. Common in South Australia. rare in Queensland. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Stoloniferous perennial aquatic herb to 130 cm high with floating and/or emergent leaves and few erect stems terminating in an inflorescence. Leaves broad-ovate to circular or reniform, to 8 cm long, glossy-green above, paler or purplish beneath. Inflorescence an open erect panicle near the summit of the flowering stem, with large yellow flowers. Flowering between October and March.
Fruit type:
Pale brown papery capsule to 12 mm long.
Seed type:
Pale orange ellipsoid seed to 1.2 mm long and 1 mm wide, with a slight wrinkled surface.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those that are turning a pale straw colour and contain hard seeds. Can collect individual capsules or break off the whole fruit spike.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 96%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
4750 (1.235 g)
5000 (Collection r g)
~303-Dec-2004DJD 65
South Eastern
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.