Seeds of South Australia
Viola betonicifolia ssp. novaguineensis (Violaceae)
Floodplain Violet
List of species for Viola
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Seed collecting:
November to February
Herbarium region:
South Eastern
NRM region:
South East
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Viola]
Name derivation:
Viola from Latin for violet, referring to the violet genus. Betonicifolia means having foliage like the plant betony (Stachys officinalis). Novaguineensis means of or from New Guinea; referring to country from which the type specimen was collected.
Found in the lower South-east in South Australia, growing in red gum woodland. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
Native. Very rare in South Australia. Rare in Victoria. Uncommon in the other states.
Plant description:
Perennial herb with short erect,  glabrous or slightly pubescent stems and stolons absent. Leaves narrowly triangular-hastate, to 8 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, hastate at base and decurrent onto petiole, shallowly crenate, especially in lower half, acute at apex, stipules linear. Flowers purplish violet, darker veined, yellow or whitish towards base on a long stalk usually above leaves. Flowering between September and January. This subspecies differ from the other subspecies found in South Australia by having a hastate leave base (truncate in Viola betonicifolia spp. betonicifolia).
Fruit type:
Brown narrowly ellipsoid capsule to 10 mm long, splitting into to 3.
Seed type:
Small dark brown ovoid seed to 2 mm long and 1.3 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect capsules that are maturing, drying and turning pale brown with brown seeds inside. Keep an eye on the capsules as they can ripen and split open quickly.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and cover with paper to prevent seeds popping out and leave to dry for a week. Then rub the capsules gently  with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has physiological dormancy that need to be overcome for the seed to germinate.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA3900 (4.75 g)50+8-Jan-2008TST341
South Eastern
19-Sep-2008100%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.