Seeds of South Australia
Arthropodium strictum (Liliaceae)
Common Chocolate-lily
List of species for Arthropodium
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Seed collecting:
November to January
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Least Concern   [tolerates traffic]
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern   [tolerates traffic]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Least Concern   [tolerates traffic]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern   [tolerates traffic]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern   [tolerates traffic]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [likes good rainfall]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Near Threatened
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern   [tolerates traffic]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Least Concern   [tolerates traffic]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [not suitable habitat]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU C2a(i))   (Probable Decline)   [goats]
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Watarru (CER02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainLeast Concern
  [tolerates traffic]
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
3 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [not suitable habitat]
Myall Plains (GAW01)GawlerRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill ComplexVulnerable
  (IUCN: VU C2a(i))   (Probable Decline)   [goats]
3 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesRare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Arthropodium]
Name derivation:
Arthropodium from the Greek 'arthron' meaning a joint and 'podion' meaning a little foot, alluding to the jointed pedicels. Strictus from Latin meaning erect or upright;,alluding to the species habit.
Distribution:
Found in the southern part of South Australia from the Gammon Ranges to the lower South-east, with disjunct occurrences in the far north-west corner. Also found in Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Uncommon in Northern Territory. Common in all other states.
Plant description:
Perennial lily with stiff, erect stems to 100 cm high and with long roots ending in fusiform tubers. Leaves to 35cm long and 12mm wide; linear-lanceolate, with old leaf bases fibrous. Inflorescence to 60cm long forming a loose panicleor reduced to a simple raceme, with long leafy bracts at the base of each branch and a lanceolate bract at the base of each pedicel . Flowers scented, solitary, drooping, blue or violet, rarely white; 10-12 mm long with anthers dark-purple, the 2 appendages much shorter, yellow.
Fruit type:
Pale-brown ovoid capsule to 8mm long, containing numerous seeds.
Seed type:
Black, sectoroid or pyramidal seed to 2mm long and 2mm wide, with smooth or slightly wrinkled surface.
Embryo type:
Linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those that are turning a pale straw colour and contain black seeds.  collect individual capsules or break off the whole spike.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
3012 (12.05 g)
3012 (12.05 g)
1005-Feb-2004MKJ 24
Southern Lofty
14-Aug-2006100%-18°C
BGA5200 (7.34 g)100+11-Jan-2007PJA151
Southern Lofty
20-Jul-2009100%-18°C
BGA3450 (14.67 g)40+30-Oct-2013DJD2700
North Western
24-Mar-2015100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
October 201496%10d10d None
0.7% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
October 201496%10d10d Soak in 250 mg/L GA3 for 24 hours
0.7% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
October 201482%10d27d Soak in 250 mg/L GA3 for 24 hours
0.7% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
October 201478%10d27d None
0.7% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
September 201458%14d21d None
1% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
September 201442%14dNA Soak in 500 mg/L GA3 for 48 hours
1% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
September 201410%28dNA Soak in 500 mg/L GA3 for 48 hours
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
September 20148%52dNA None
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
October 20144%10dNA None
0.7% water agar
Incubated under summer conditions
October 20140%NANA Soak in 250 mg/L GA3 for 24 hours
0.7% water agar
Incubated under summer conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)