Seeds of South Australia
Xerochrysum bracteatum (Compositae)
Golden Everlasting
List of species for Xerochrysum
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Seed collecting:
November to March
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [localised but in good numbers]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [highly localised; likes disturbance; declined around foothills - urbanisation]
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Near Threatened
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Talia (EYB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [prev Bracteantha bracteata]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [short-lived, comes up after fire & rain]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [short-lived, comes up after fire & rain]
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)   [short-lived, comes up after fire & rain]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Least Concern
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Least Concern
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Least Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooRare
3 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockNear Threatened
, Rare
3 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockRare
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionNear Threatened
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaNear Threatened
  (Probable Decline)   [short-lived, comes up after fire & rain]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02)GawlerRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
4 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
3 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)FinkeLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Xerochrysum]
Name derivation:
Xerochrysum from the Greek 'xeros' meaning dry and 'chrysos' meaning gold; referring to the golden papery flowers of the genus. Bracteatum from the Latin 'bractea' meaning a thin plate; referring to the bracts at the base of the flower.
Distribution:
Found across most parts of South Australia except in the south-east and north-east corners, growing in open woodland or forest, usually on sandy to sandy loam soils. Also found in all the other states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in all the other states.
Plant description:
Erect annual or perennial herb to 80 cm high. Leaves narrowly to broadly oblanceolate or narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, to 10 cm long and 20 mm wide scabrous-pubescent like the stem, especially on the margins. Flower-heads irregular, solitary or in loose clusters, with large yellow papery daisy flowers, bracts pale yellow, intermediate bracts longest, bright-yellow or rarely white, outer ones often streaked reddish or brown. Flowering between August and November.
Fruit type:
Large yellow-brown daisy head.
Seed type:
Small oblong to cylindrical brown seeds to 3 mm long and 1 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect whole heads that are brown or collect seeds that are easily removed from the head. These should be hard and brown.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray for a week to dry. Then rub the heads gently with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Viable seeds will be dark and hard. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability were high, ranging from 85% to 100%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily without any treatment.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA12800 (13.38 g)10024-Jan-2008DJD1047
Southern Lofty
19-Sep-2008100%-18°C
BGA800 (0.71 g)30+19-Mar-2008KHB125
Southern Lofty
19-Sep-200885%-18°C
BGA34000 (10.85 g)50+5-Dec-2008KHB184
Murray
20-Jul-200995%-18°C
BGA125 (0.15 g)620-Aug-2010KBH461
Flinders Ranges
1-Jan-2012NCT
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jun-0898%7 d21 d
filter paper over moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)