Seeds of South Australia
Zygophyllum ammophilum (Zygophyllaceae)
Sand Twinleaf
List of species for Zygophyllum
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Seed collecting:
October to January
Herbarium region:
Murray
NRM region:
South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern   [similar to Z simile; could be increasing, not edible]
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern   [Could be increasing, not edible]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern   [similar to Z simile; could be increasing, not edible]
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern   [similar to Z simile; could be increasing, not edible]
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern   [similar to Z simile; could be increasing, not edible]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   [edge of range]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern   [not typical habitat]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Curnamona (BHC06)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
Dieri (SSD03)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Diamantina-Eyre (CHC04) 
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Lake Pure (CHC07) 
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Data Deficient   [query ID]
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Data Deficient   [query ID]
Pedirka (FIN04)Finke
 Least Concern   [has been split from Z billardierei]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
  [not typical habitat]
7 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
Yalata (NUL03)NullarborLeast Concern
Curnamona (BHC06)Broken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
2 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
6 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
2 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesData Deficient
Pedirka (FIN04)FinkeLeast Concern
  [has been split from Z billardierei]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Zygophyllum]
Name derivation:
Zygophyllum from the Greek 'zygon' meaning pair and 'phyllon' meaning leaf; referring to the pair of leaflets making up each leaf. Ammophilum from the Latin 'ammo' meaning sand and 'philus' meaning loving; referring to its sandy habitat.
Distribution:
Found in the eastern part of South Australia, growing on sand and sandy loams but also on heavier clay soils. Also found in New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Erect or ascending, much-branched annual herb 30 cm high. Leaves to 45 mm long with leaflets articulate at base, linear-oblong, to 25 mm long and 3 mm wide, fleshy, apex truncate or sometimes rounded or emarginate. Flowers white or yellow with 4 sepals, 4 petals and 4 stamens. This species is similar to Zygophyllum simile which have 8 stamens and only 1 or 2 seeds per cell. Flowering between August and November.
Fruit type:
4-angled capsule to 7 mm long, drooping, truncate at apex with a short point with 3 or 4 seeds per cell.
Seed type:
Dark brown semi-flat ovoid seed to 3 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, with a reticulated or rugose surface.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect semi-dried and dried capsules by running your hands through the stems of the plant. Mature fruits will come off easily and will have a hard and dark seed inside each segment.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the greeness of the fruit. Then rub the dried capsules to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1783%77 seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1740%7NA leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1726%21NA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse, seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-170%NANA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)