Seeds of South Australia
Zygophyllum billardierei (Zygophyllaceae)
Coast Twinleaf
List of species for Zygophyllum
Display more images
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
October to March
Herbarium regions:
Nullarbor, Eyre Peninsula, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South East
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); D)   (Probable Decline)   [2 pops known: Pt Elliot declining, Newland Head stable & managed]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Data Deficient   [possibly confused with Z confluens]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Near Threatened   [Coastal development a threat.]
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [Coastal development a threat.]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Least Concern
Hampton (HAM01)Hampton
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
2 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
, Endangered
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty BlockData Deficient
  [possibly confused with Z confluens]
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
2 of 8 subregionsGawlerRare
2 of 3 subregionsNullarborLeast Concern
Hampton (HAM01)HamptonLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Zygophyllum]
Name derivation:
Zygophyllum from the Greek 'zygon' meaning pair and 'phyllon' meaning leaf; referring to the pair of leaflets making up each leaf. Billardierei named after Jacques Julien de La Billardiere (1755-1834), a French botanist who visited Western Australia and Tasmania with D'Entrecasteaux expedition and named many new plant species.
Found along the coast of South Australia from the Nullarbor to the lower South-east, growing on coastal cliffs between rocks and sometimes scrambling along fences and stronger shrubs. Also found in Western Australia, Victoria and Tasmania.
Native. Common in South Australia. Rare in Victoria and Tasmania. Common in Western Australia.
Plant description:
Scrambling or ascending perennial herb or subshrub to 60 cm high with slender stems to 2 m long, sometimes climbing over taller plants. Leaflets oblong to linear, to 15 mm long and 12 mm wide, articulate at the base or continuous with the petiole, fleshy, apex rounded or truncate. Flowers yellow with petals usually twice as long as the sepals. Flowering between June and December.
Fruit type:
Brown papery capsule to 12 mm long, drooping, acutely 4-angled, obliquely truncate with a slight upward slope to the style, 1-2 seeds per cell.
Seed type:
Dark brown ovoid seed to 4 mm long and 2 mm wide, with a slight hook at the narrow end and a wrinkled surface.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect semi-dried and dried capsules by running your hands through the stems of the plant. Mature fruits will come off easily and will have a hard and dark seed inside each segment.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the greeness of the fruit. Then rub the dried capsules to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.