Seeds of South Australia
Zygophyllum confluens (Zygophyllaceae)
Forked Twinleaf
List of species for Zygophyllum
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Seed collecting:
May to December
Herbarium regions:
Lake Eyre, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [Rapid Bay]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [in Kingston Pk; possibly confused with Z billardierei]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Least Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [query ID]
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooVulnerable
  (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [Rapid Bay]
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
2 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
4 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
2 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsRare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Zygophyllum]
Name derivation:
Zygophyllum from the Greek 'zygon' meaning pair and 'phyllon' meaning leaf; referring to the pair of leaflets making up each leaf. Confluens from the Latin 'com' meaning with or together and 'fluere' meaning to flow; 
Distribution:
Found in the central part of South Australia, from the Gammmon Ranges to the Fleurieu Peninsula, growing quartzite rocks, on limestone cliffs, and sandy soils. Also found in Queensland and New South Wales.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Rare in the other states.
Plant description:
Erect or prostrate shrub to 1 m high, sometimes scrambling over other plants. Leaves succulent with leaflet continuous with the petiole, linear, cylindrical to flat, to 25 mm long and 3 mm wide, tips blunt with a tiny point.  Flowers yellow, with 4 sepals, 4 petals and 8 stamens. Flowering between March and October.
Fruit type:
reddish 4-angled (like wing) capsules, to 11 mm long, apex truncate with 1-2 seeds per cell.
Seed type:
Dark brown semi-flat ovoid seed.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect semi-dried and dried capsules by running your hands through the stems of the plant. Mature fruits will come off easily and will have a hard and dark seed inside each segment.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the greeness of the fruit. Then rub the dried capsules to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
1750 (11.5 g)
1750 (11.5 g)
50+1-Nov-2006DJD6431-Aug-2007100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.