Seeds of South Australia
Zygophyllum crassissimum (Zygophyllaceae)
Thick Twinleaf
List of species for Zygophyllum
Display more images
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
October to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Gairdner-Torrens
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
Roxby (GAW07)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [likes gypeous breakaways]
Simpson Desert (SSD02)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range; restricted]
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Near Threatened   [likes gypeous breakaways]
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [likes gypeous breakaways]
Macumba (STP05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [likes gypeous breakaways]
Witjira (STP06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [likes gypeous breakaways]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Zygophyllum]
Name derivation:
Zygophyllum from the Greek 'zygon' meaning pair and 'phyllon' meaning leaf; referring to the pair of leaflets making up each leaf. Crassissimum means very fleshy; referring to the texture of the plant.
Distribution:
Found in the north central part of South Australia, growing on gypseous flats and rocky rises. Also found in the Northern Territory.
Status:
Native. Rare in South Australia. Rare in the Northern Territory.
Plant description:
Erect perennial subshrub with a thick stem and thick spreading branches, to 60 cm high. Leaves very fleshy with leaflets very broad, obliquely obovate-cuneate, to 4 cm long, appearing continuous with a very short petiole, glaucous. Flowers orange with 4 sepals and 4 petals. Flowering between June and October.
Fruit type:
Yellow-brown broad-oblong, four segmented capsule with paper wings, each segment with 1-2 seeds.
Seed type:
Dark brown to black ovoid seed to 4 mm long and 2 mm wide and a long yellow aril on one edge.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect semi-dried and dried capsules by running your hands through the stems of the plant. Mature fruits will come off easily and will have a hard and dark seed inside each segment.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the greeness of the fruit. Then rub the dried capsules to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were high, ranging from  95% to 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
3600 (25 g)
3600 (25 g)
100+14-Dec-2010MJT298
Lake Eyre
1-Jan-201295%+5°C, -18°C
BGA10000 (89.8 g)2-Nov-2013TST1189
Lake Eyre
24-Mar-2015100%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Sep-148%25 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Sep-144%25 dNA 30% peroxide 15 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Sep-152%25 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Sep-140%NANA 30% peroxide 15 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)