Seeds of South Australia
Zygophyllum crenatum (Zygophyllaceae)
Lobed Twinleaf
List of species for Zygophyllum
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Seed collecting:
October to December
Herbarium regions:
Lake Eyre, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula
NRM regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range; likes hard soils in mallee]
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ab)   (Definite Decline)
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ab)   (Definite Decline)   [roadsides, favours clearance]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ab)   (Definite Decline)
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [outlier]
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range; likes hard soils in mallee]
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockRare
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
5 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria DesertRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
2 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
2 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsRare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Zygophyllum]
Name derivation:
Zygophyllum from the Greek 'zygon' meaning pair and 'phyllon' meaning leaf; referring to the pair of leaflets making up each leaf. Crenatum from Latin meaning notched or crenulate; referring to the crenated leaf apex usually with 3 blunt teeth.
Distribution:
Found in the east central part of South Australia, growing on stony brown clay and clay loam. Also found in New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Uncommon in Victoria. Common in New South Wales.
Plant description:
Annual herb to 20 cm high with rather stout procumbent or ascending branche. Leaves to 70 mm long, green with leaflets articulate at base, narrow-oblong to narrow-obovate, to 35 mm long and 12 mm wide, apex crenate usually with 3 blunt teeth, petiole distinctly winged. Bright yellow flowers with 4 sepals and 4 petals about twice as long as the sepals. Flowering between august and October.
Fruit type:
Pale brown ovoid-oblong capsule to 20 mm long, 4-angled, drooping with 3-8 seeds in each cell.
Seed type:
Yellow ovoid seed to 4 mm long and 2.2 mm wide, with one straight depression.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect semi-dried and dried capsules by running your hands through the stems of the plant. Mature fruits will come off easily and will have a hard and dark seed inside each segment.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the greeness of the fruit. Then rub the dried capsules to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1743%14NA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse, seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1713%14NA seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-170%NANA leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-170%NANA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)