Seeds of South Australia
Zygophyllum emarginatum (Zygophyllaceae)
Notched Twinleaf
List of species for Zygophyllum
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Seed collecting:
November to January
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Northern Flinders (FLB05)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Gawler Lakes (GAW03)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Near Threatened
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Tallaringa (GVD05)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Near Threatened
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Everard Block (CER03)Central Ranges
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Pedirka (FIN04)Finke
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Northern Flinders (FLB05)Flinders Lofty BlockRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))
5 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
Tallaringa (GVD05)Great Victoria DesertRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05)Simpson Strzelecki DunefieldsNear Threatened
5 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryRare
Everard Block (CER03)Central RangesRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Pedirka (FIN04)FinkeLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Zygophyllum]
Name derivation:
Zygophyllum from the Greek 'zygon' meaning pair and 'phyllon' meaning leaf; referring to the pair of leaflets making up each leaf. Emarginatum means with a notched margin; referring to the apex of the leaflets which is notched.
Distribution:
Found in the north and north-eastern parts of South Australia, growing on rocky or gravelly hills or rises, breakaways, gibber plains and Chenopod-rich plains. Also found in the Northern Territory, Queensland and New South Wales.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Uncommon in New South Wales. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Spreading annual herb to 10 cm high with glabrous or inconspicuously hairy ridged stems. Leaves opposite, succulent, green, petiolate, and divided into 2 leaflets. Leaflets articulate at base, cuneate to narrow-obcordate, to 16 mm long and 7 mm wide, apex mostly distinctly emarginate. Stipules present between pairs of opposite leaves. Inflorescence small with yellow flowers, 4 sepals, 4 petals to 4.5 mm long. Flowering between June and September
Fruit type:
Pale brown capsule to 8 mm long, strongly 4-angled (but not winged) in cross-section, truncate-angular apically.
Seed type:
Semi-flat brown shiny ovoid seed to 3.2 mm long and 2 mm wide, with a reticulated surface.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect semi-dried and dried capsules by running your hands through the stems of the plant. Mature fruits will come off easily and will have a hard and dark seed inside each segment.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the greeness of the fruit. Then rub the dried capsules to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1790%77 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse, seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1730%7NA seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-173%14NA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-170%0NA leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)