Seeds of South Australia
Zygophyllum flavum (Zygophyllaceae)
Yellow Coast Twinleaf
List of species for Zygophyllum
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Seed collecting:
October to March
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island
NRM regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island
IBRA regions
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Near Threatened   [fire dependent]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Near Threatened   [Comes up after fire or disturbance; needs more surveys]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Near Threatened   [comes up after fire]
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern   [comes up after fire]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Near Threatened   [comes up after fire]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Zygophyllum]
Name derivation:
Zygophyllum from the Greek 'zygon' meaning pair and 'phyllon' meaning leaf; referring to the pair of leaflets making up each leaf. Flavum from the Latin 'flavus' meaning yellow; possibly referring to its light yellow flowers or stems.
Endemic to South Australia and found on the Eyre Peninsula and Kangaroo Island, growing on sandy loam. 
Native. Uncommon in South Australia. More common after fire or other disturbances.
Plant description:
Decumbent or straggly annual shrub to 40 cm high. Leaves petiolate, leaflets longer and broader than flattened petiole, succulent, narrowly elliptic or narrowly obovate, often in unequal pairs, to 20 mm long and 4 mm wide, constricted slightly at junction with petiole but not articulated, obtuse at the apex. Inflorescence solitary at each node with light yellow flowers. Flowering between August and January.
Fruit type:
Pale brown broadly obtriangular capsule to 7 mm long and 7 mm wide, 4-angled, 4-celled, truncate at base.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect semi-dried and dried capsules by running your hands through the stems of the plant. Mature fruits will come off easily and will have a hard and dark seed inside each segment.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the greeness of the fruit. Then rub the dried capsules to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1716%21NA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse, seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1713%21NA seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1710%35NA leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-170%NANA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)