Seeds of South Australia
Zygophyllum glaucum (Zygophyllaceae)
Pale Twinleaf
List of species for Zygophyllum
Display more images
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
August to February
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range near Gawler; relictual along coast]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Near Threatened
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Near Threatened
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA abd(i))   (Probable Decline)   [mostly roadside veg]
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [mostly roadside veg]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   [perennial]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern   [perennial]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Near Threatened   [perennial]
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern   [perennial]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Near Threatened
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Near Threatened
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Near Threatened
Hampton (HAM01)Hampton
 Near Threatened
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Witjira (STP06) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
  [perennial]
3 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
2 of 3 subregionsNullarborNear Threatened
Hampton (HAM01)HamptonNear Threatened
2 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsRare
, Vulnerable
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Zygophyllum]
Name derivation:
Zygophyllum from the Greek 'zygon' meaning pair and 'phyllon' meaning leaf; referring to the pair of leaflets making up each leaf. Glaucum from the Latin 'glaucus' meaning bluish; alluding to the bluish appearance of the plant. 
Distribution:
Found in the southern part of South Australia, growing a variety of soils such as loamy sands and gypseous sands in mallee communities. also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Rare in the Northern Territory and Queensland. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Erect or ascending annual herb or perennial subshrub to 20 cm high, with erect or ascending stout branches often forming a mat up to 2 m diameter. Leaves glaucous or green, to 50 cm long. Leaflets articulate at base, oblique-obovate, to 40 mm long and 22 mm wide, fleshy, apex rounded. Inflorescence on narrow stalk in axils of leaves with bright-yellow flower. Flowering between June and December.
Fruit type:
Yellow-brown ovoid-oblong 4-angled capsule, to 20 mm long, drooping, rounded at apex, with a short apical point and 3-5 seeds per cell.
Seed type:
Brown ovoid seed to 3.5 mm long and 2.8 mm wide, with a long narrow aril.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect semi-dried and dried capsules by running your hands through the stems of the plant. Mature fruits will come off easily and will have a hard and dark seed inside each segment.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the greeness of the fruit. Then rub the dried capsules to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 90%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA2600 (23.71 g)102-Nov-2009TST851
Eyre Peninsula
Jun-201090%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.