Seeds of South Australia
Zygophyllum humillimum (Zygophyllaceae)
Small-fruit Twinleaf
List of species for Zygophyllum
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Seed collecting:
September to November
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Flinders Ranges
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Northern Flinders (FLB05)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [southern limit]
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Dieri (SSD03)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Near Threatened
Oodnadatta (STP02)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Macumba (STP05) 
 Near Threatened
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern
Diamantina-Eyre (CHC04) 
 Least Concern
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Near Threatened
Lake Pure (CHC07) 
 Near Threatened
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Northern Flinders (FLB05)Flinders Lofty BlockRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
2 of 8 subregionsGawlerRare
2 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
4 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
4 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Zygophyllum]
Name derivation:
Zygophyllum from the Greek 'zygon' meaning pair and 'phyllon' meaning leaf; referring to the pair of leaflets making up each leaf. Humillimum is the superlative of the Latin 'humilis' meaning very small; referring to its small fruit relative to other Zygophjyllum.
Distribution:
Found in the north-eastern part of South Australia, growing on cracking clay and sandy loam with gypsum. Also found in Queensland and New South Wales.
Status:
Native. Uncommon in South Australia. Rare in the other states.
Plant description:
Small prostrate annual herb 10 cm high. Leaves continuous with the petiole, leaflets oblong to obovate-cuneate, to 10 mm long, apex with a slight notched. Inflorescence on a very short stalk with small yellow flowers. Flowering between July and September.
Fruit type:
Tiny brown globular-campanulate capsule to 4 mm long, 4-angled, apex slightly dome-shaped with a minute membranous appendage forming a slight corner at upper part of each angle, one seed per segment.
Seed type:
Shiny semi-flat brown ovoid seed to 2.5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect semi-dried and dried capsules by running your hands through the stems of the plant. Mature fruits will come off easily and will have a hard and dark seed inside each segment.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the greeness of the fruit. Then rub the dried capsules to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
9900 (18.25 g)
9900 (18.25 g)
200+27-Aug-2008DJD1137
Lake Eyre
20-Jul-2009100%-18°C
BGA 
MSB
1950 (1.92 g)
1690 (1.66 g)
20+7-Oct-2010TST1051
Lake Eyre
1-Jan-2012100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.