Seeds of South Australia
Zygophyllum iodocarpum (Zygophyllaceae)
Violet Twinleaf
List of species for Zygophyllum
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Seed collecting:
June to October
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Murray
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Near Threatened   [edge of range]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
Barrier Range Outwash (BHC04) 
 Least Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Least Concern
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Least Concern
Simpson Desert (SSD02)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Least Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Near Threatened   [western edge of range]
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern
Macumba (STP05) 
 Near Threatened
Witjira (STP06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaNear Threatened
  [edge of range]
7 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria DesertLeast Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)NullarborLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
2 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
, Rare
6 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
2 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryRare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Zygophyllum]
Name derivation:
Zygophyllum from the Greek 'zygon' meaning pair and 'phyllon' meaning leaf; referring to the pair of leaflets making up each leaf. Iodocarpum from the Greek 'iodes' meaning violet and 'karpos' meaning a fruit; alluding to the red-purple blush of the fruits and branches.
Distribution:
Found across the northern part in South Australia, growing in open areas on clay plains, alluvial flood plains or gibber plains, but also in bare areas within chenopod shrublands. Also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Spreading annual herb with red-purple branches. Leaves succulent, oblong, Y-shaped to 2 cm long, distinctly articulate at the base, stem winged. Inflorescence paired at each node with yellow flowers. This species is related to Zygophyllum eichleri, Z. tesquorum and Z. rowelliae and is distinguished by its paired, shortly pendent, wider than high, often purple-tinged, 5-angled fruits with a very short 5-lobed style. Flowering between April and August.
Fruit type:
Red-purple globular capsule to 7 mm long, with 5-angles and 5 cells, each cell with 1-2 seeds.
Seed type:
Brown tear-drop seed to 4 mm long and 2.5 mm wide, with a smooth surface.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect semi-dried and dried capsules by running your hands through the stems of the plant. Mature fruits will come off easily and will have a hard and dark seed inside each segment.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the greenness of the fruit. Then rub the dried capsules to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
4500 (21.06 g)
4500 (21.06 g)
100+14-Sep-2007PJL2559
Flinders Ranges
19-Sep-200895%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-1750%1435 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse, seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-173%14NA seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-170%NANA leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-170%NANA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)