Seeds of South Australia
Zygophyllum marliesiae (Zygophyllaceae)
Marlies Square-fruit Twinleaf
List of species for Zygophyllum
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Seed collecting:
August to December
Herbarium regions:
Lake Eyre, Gairdner-Torrens
NRM region:
South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
Northern Flinders (FLB05)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [endemic to SA]
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [southern limit]
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [endemic to SA]
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [endemic to SA]
Dieri (SSD03)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [endemic to SA]
Warriner (SSD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [endemic to SA]
Murnpeowie (STP03)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [endemic to SA]
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [endemic to SA]
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern   [endemic to SA]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Zygophyllum]
Name derivation:
Zygophyllum from the Greek 'zygon' meaning pair and 'phyllon' meaning leaf; referring to the pair of leaflets making up each leaf. Marliesiae named after Mrs Marlies Eichler, wife of Hansjörg Eichler who always shared in his's work, but her contribution is largely unsung.
Distribution:
Endemic to South Australia and is confined to the Lake Eyre region, growing in a wide range of ecological niche including salt pans, samphire flood plains, limestone formations associated with mound springs, gypseous flats and sand hills.
Status:
Native. Uncommon in South Australia.
Plant description:
Spreading annual herb to 15 cm high. Leaves petiolate, with 2 pairs of leaflets. Leaflets succulent, elliptic, to 8 mm long and 8.5 mm wide, continuous with petiole and not articulated at base, rounded at the apex. Inflorescence solitary at each node with yellow flowers. This species is related to Zygolphyllum prismatothecum and can be distinguished predominantly on fruiting characters, it differs by its longer pedicels in flower and fruit, the elliptic rather than rectangular fruits and by the much shorter apical appendages on the fruit (which continuous with the angle of the fruit wall and not constricted at their base as in Z. prismatothecum). Flowering between June and November.
Fruit type:
Yellow-green rounded-oblong capsule to 11 mm long,with  4-angles and 4-cells, sides continuous into 4 falcate, appendages at apex.
Seed type:
Brown ovoid seed to 3.5 mm long and 1.8 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect semi-dried and dried capsules by running your hands through the stems of the plant. Mature fruits will come off easily and will have a hard and dark seed inside each segment.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the greeness of the fruit. Then rub the dried capsules to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-17100%77 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse, seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1730%35NA 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1710%7NA seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-170%NANA leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)