Seeds of South Australia
Zygophyllum ovatum (Zygophyllaceae)
Dwarf Twinleaf
List of species for Zygophyllum
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Seed collecting:
September to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Near Threatened
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Near Threatened
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [Threatened by coastal development; limit of range]
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern   [Threatened by coastal development]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Near Threatened   [edge of range]
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Near Threatened
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Least Concern
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Near Threatened
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Carlisle (NUL01)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02) 
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Least Concern
Hampton (HAM01)Hampton
 Least Concern
Barrier Range Outwash (BHC04)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Least Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaNear Threatened
6 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
3 of 3 subregionsNullarborLeast Concern
Hampton (HAM01)HamptonLeast Concern
2 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
2 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesRare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Zygophyllum]
Name derivation:
Zygophyllum from the Greek 'zygon' meaning pair and 'phyllon' meaning leaf; referring to the pair of leaflets making up each leaf. Ovatum from the Latin 'ovatus' meaning ovate or egg-shaped; referring to the shape of its fruit.
Distribution:
Found mainly across the middle part of South Australia, growing on calcareous loam and red-brown sandy soils. Also found in Western Australia, Northern Territory, New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Uncommon in Victoria. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Small erect or ascending annual herb to 25 cm high. Leaves to 15 m long, leaflets narrow-oblong to linear, to 10 mm long and 5 mm wide, continuous with the petiole, apex usually slightly emarginate. Inflorescence on a very short pedicel with tiny white-green flowers. Flowering between July and October.
Fruit type:
Red-yellow ovoid-oblong capsule to 8 mm long, bluntly 4-angled usually with 2 seeds in each cell, drooping on short stalk.
Seed type:
Brown ovoid seed to 2.5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect semi-dried and dried capsules by running your hands through the stems of the plant. Mature fruits will come off easily and will have a hard and dark seed inside each segment.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the greeness of the fruit. Then rub the dried capsules to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 95%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
5500 (8.55 g)
5500 (8.55 g)
30-4015-Oct-2007TST189
Eyre Peninsula
19-Sep-200895%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.