Seeds of South Australia
Zygophyllum reticulatum (Zygophyllaceae)
Veined-fruit Twinleaf
List of species for Zygophyllum
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Seed collecting:
October to December
Herbarium region:
Eyre Peninsula
NRM region:
Eyre Peninsula
IBRA region
Gawler Lakes (GAW03)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [highly restricted, endemic, could be introduced]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Zygophyllum]
Name derivation:
Zygophyllum from the Greek 'zygon' meaning pair and 'phyllon' meaning leaf; referring to the pair of leaflets making up each leaf. Reticulatum from the Latin 'reticulum' meaning a small net; referring to the reticulate pattern of the venation on the wing of the dried fruit.
Distribution:
Found around the Port August area in South Australia, growing in mallee and spinifex on red sand over limestone. Also found in Western Australia.
Status:
Native. Rare in South Australia. Uncommon in Western Australia.
Plant description:
Shrubs, climbing or sprawling annual herbs to 40 cm high and 40 cm wide or sprawling in other vegetation up to 2 m high. Leaves succulent, leaflets narrowly oblong, to 25 mm long and 2 mm wide, continuous with flattened stalk, acute at the apex. Inflorescence solitary at each node with yellow, fading white flower. The characteristics of habit, leaf shape, calyx colour, flower size, style length, stigma division and fruit shape are all variable within this species. The distinguishing feature is the widely spaced, reticulate venation on the wings of the dried fruit. Flowering between August and October.
Fruit type:
Pale brown to green , sometimes with reddish edge, 4-winged capsule to 15 mm long and 22 mm broad, not breaking into single winged segment. Wings of dried fruits with a clear, widely spaced reticulate venation.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect semi-dried and dried capsules by running your hands through the stems of the plant. Mature fruits will come off easily and will have a hard and dark seed inside each segment.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the greenness of the fruit. Then rub the dried capsules to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to remove the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
2100 (7.21 g)
2100 (7.21 g)
20-3015-Oct-2007TST190
Eyre Peninsula
19-Sep-200890%-18°C
BGA 
MSB
2100 (7.21 g)
2100 (7.21 g)
20-3015-Oct-2007TST190
Eyre Peninsula
19-Sep-200890%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jul-17100%1414 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1797%77 seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-1793%714 30% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min, water rinse, seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jul-176%7NA leached in water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)