Seeds of South Australia
Spyridium fontis-woodii (Rhamnaceae)
Woods Well Spyridium
List of species for Spyridium
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Seed collecting:
January to February
Herbarium region:
South Eastern
NRM region:
South East
IBRA region
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling Depression
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: )   (Probable Decline)
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Spyridium]
Name derivation:
Spyridium from the Greek 'spyridion' meaning a small basket; referring to the flowerheads which are circled by leafy bracts. Fontis-woodsii from the Latin 'fons' meaning well or spring and the name of the neighbouring locality Woods Well (named by Thomas Burr, Deputy Surveyor-General of South Australia after a ‘Mr Wood’) where the type specimen was collected from.
Endemic to South Australia and currently known from a single extant roadside population, growing on shallow sands over calcrete with Eucalyptus diversifolia and heath plants.
Native. Very rare in South Australia.
Plant description:
Erect perennial shrub to 1.8 m with pubescent stems. Leaves to 15 mm long, alternate, broadly  obovate, notched at the apex, stellate or bifid hairs, green except for the 4-5 white-velvety floral leaves. Inflorescence a dense cymose with funnel shaped, white flowers approximately 3mm long.
Fruit type:
Dark brown ellipsoid to obovoid fruit to 2.2 mm long and 1.9mm wide, consisting of 3 papery fruitlets.
Seed type:
Light brown, mottled, flattened obovoid seed to 1.5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect fruit heads that are darkening and have a fluffy appearance. Rub the flower parts in your palm to see if there is any seed, which should be brown and hard.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for a week. Then rub the heads with your hands or a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was average, at 74%.
Seed germination:
This species has physical dormancy that can be overcome by nicking or scratching the seed coat with a scalpel or sand paper or by pouring hot (boiling) water over the seeds.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA750 (0.3384 g)1030-Jan-2013DJD2612
South Eastern
27-Feb-2014 (Xray 74%)-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jun-1370%21 d49 d hot water (95°C) 30 s;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)