Seeds of South Australia
Cladium procerum (Cyperaceae)
Leafy Twig-rush
List of species for Cladium
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Seed collecting:
January to April
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [water dependent]
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [water dependent]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [water dependent]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [water dependent]
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [could be stable; limited habitat; needs fresh water/wet]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [needs fresh water/wet]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA ab)   (Definite Decline)
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   [northern limit; highly localised; Moro Gorge: climate sensitive]
Talia (EYB04)Eyre Yorke Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1)   (Probable Decline)   [needs fresh water, highly localised]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [water dependent]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Cladium]
Name derivation:
Cladium from the Greek 'clados' meaning a branchlet, referring to the panicles. Procerum from the Latin 'procerus' meaning high, tall or long.
Found in northern and southern Flinders Ranges, southern Mount Lofty Ranges and lower South-east in South Australia growing in coastal swamps and margins of deep water creeks. Also found in all mainland States.
Native. Rare in South Australia. Rare in Western Australia, Northern Territory and Victoria. Common in the other States.
Plant description:
Tall rhizomatous perennial sedge forming large clumps. Leaves with blade to 2.5 m long and 20 mm wide with yellow-brown sheath. Flower-spike long, interrupted-oblong in outline to 35 cm long and 9 cm diameter, with  red-brown glumes.
Fruit type:
Large red-brown fruiting spike.
Seed type:
Brown ellipsoid to ovoid nut to 2 mm long and 1 mm wide, with a smooth surface.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect heads that are dying off, turning brown and containing hard seeds.
Seed cleaning:
Place the heads in a tray and leave to dry for one to two weeks. Then rub the heads with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From four collections, the seed viability was average to high, ranging from 65% to 90%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
33400 (60.15 g)
33400 (60.15 g)
South Eastern
28-Jul-200670%+5°C, -18°C
BGA2500 (4.79 g)319-Apr-2007DJD796
Southern Lofty
1-Aug-200785%+5°C, -18°C
BGA4300 (7.8 g)313-Apr-2007Willowdene - River Angas
Southern Lofty
1-Aug-200765%+5°C, -18°C
BGA6000 (10.86 g)228-Jan-2010KHB363
Flinders Ranges
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.