Seeds of South Australia
Xerothamnella parvifolia (Acanthaceae)
Freckled duck
List of species for Xerothamnella
Display more images
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
February to April
Herbarium region:
Flinders Ranges
NRM region:
South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA region
Northern Flinders (FLB05)Flinders Lofty Block
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v))   (Probable Decline)   [in Moro Gorge; goats, not protected]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Xerothamnella]
Name derivation:
Xerothamnella from the Greek 'xiros' meaning dry and 'thamnus' meaning shrub, referring to its twiggy appearance. Parvifolia from the Latin 'parvus' meaning small and 'folium' meaning a leaf, referring to the species having few small leaves.
Restricted to one locality on the eastern side of the northern Flinders Ranges in South Australia, growing on skeletal clay soils on slopes above gullies. Also found in Queensland and New South Wales.
Native. Very rare in South Australia. Very rare in the other states. Vulnerable in South Australia under the EPBC Act.
Plant description:
Low woody and much branching shrub to 1 m high and wide. Leaves small and usually on the younger stems, stalkless, thick to 10 mm long and 3 mm wide. Flowers singly in the upper leaf axils, consisting of 4 white upper petals and 1 red lower petal. Flowering between November to January.
Fruit type:
Flat elongated papery capsule to 8 mm long, containing 1 to 2 seeds each.
Seed type:
Flat brown, reniform seed to 4 mm long and 3 mm wide, covered in small tubercules.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect capsules that are maturing, drying off and turning brown. Green capsules can be collected if the seeds are hard and brown.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a paper bag or tray and allow to dry for 1 to 2 weeks. Gently rub the dried capsule by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 90%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily without any treatment.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA4400 (24 g)50+14-Mar-2010KHB367
Flinders Ranges
1-Jan-201290%+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jan-10100%7 d14 d
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jan-10100%21 d21 d
moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)