Seeds of South Australia
Xanthorrhoea quadrangulata (Liliaceae)
Mount Lofty Grass-tree
List of species for Xanthorrhoea
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Seed collecting:
September to January
Herbarium regions:
Lake Eyre, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [long-lived]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Near Threatened   [well-protected; long-lived]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [Limited habitat]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [Not typical habitat. Data deficient.]
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [limited habitat]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Xanthorrhoea]
Name derivation:
Xanthorrhoea from the Greek 'xanthos' meaning yellow and 'rheo' meaning to flow; referring to the yellow resin that is often produced from the leaves. Quadrangulata from the Latin 'quadra' meaning four and 'angulatus' meaning cornered; referring to the leaves square cross section.
Endemic to South Australia and found growing on rocky ridges across the Mount Lofty and Flinders Ranges. 
Native. Common in South Australia..
Plant description:
An erect perennial plant with long narrow linear squared leaves arising from a central point and hanging down like a skirt. Older plants have a trunk up to 2 m tall. Flowers are creamy white on a long cylindrical spike. Flowering between March and August.
Fruit type:
Numerous woody capsules maturing to dark brown along the spike. Capsule split into three segments, each containing one black seed.
Seed type:
Flat pyrimid-like black seed to 10 mm long and 5 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Linear under-developed.
Seed collecting:
Cut off fruit spikes that have mature capsules, usually turning dark brown or beginning to split. The seeds inside should be black.
Seed cleaning:
Place the fruit spikes in a tray or bucket and leave to dry for 3-4 weeks or until most of the capsules split. Then shake the fruit spike in a bucket to dislodge the seeds. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From on collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily without any treatment.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
11000 (260.73 g)
11000 (260.73 g)
Southern Lofty
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.