Seeds of South Australia
Xanthorrhoea quadrangulata (Liliaceae)
Mount Lofty Grass-tree
List of species for Xanthorrhoea
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Seed collecting:
September to January
Herbarium regions:
Lake Eyre, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [long-lived]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Near Threatened   [well-protected; long-lived]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [Limited habitat]
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [Not typical habitat. Data deficient.]
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [limited habitat]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Xanthorrhoea]
Name derivation:
Xanthorrhoea from the Greek 'xanthos' meaning yellow and 'rheo' meaning to flow; referring to the yellow resin that is often produced from the leaves. Quadrangulata from the Latin 'quadra' meaning four and 'angulatus' meaning cornered; referring to the leaves square cross section.
Distribution:
Endemic to South Australia and found growing on rocky ridges across the Mount Lofty and Flinders Ranges. 
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia..
Plant description:
An erect perennial plant with long narrow linear squared leaves arising from a central point and hanging down like a skirt. Older plants have a trunk up to 2 m tall. Flowers are creamy white on a long cylindrical spike. Flowering between March and August.
Fruit type:
Numerous woody capsules maturing to dark brown along the spike. Capsule split into three segments, each containing one black seed.
Seed type:
Flat pyrimid-like black seed to 10 mm long and 5 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Linear under-developed.
Seed collecting:
Cut off fruit spikes that have mature capsules, usually turning dark brown or beginning to split. The seeds inside should be black.
Seed cleaning:
Place the fruit spikes in a tray or bucket and leave to dry for 3-4 weeks or until most of the capsules split. Then shake the fruit spike in a bucket to dislodge the seeds. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From on collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily without any treatment.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
11000 (260.73 g)
11000 (260.73 g)
25KHB013
Southern Lofty
9-Aug-2006100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.