Seeds of South Australia
Viola betonicifolia ssp. betonicifolia (Violaceae)
Showy Violet
List of species for Viola
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Seed collecting:
November to February
Herbarium regions:
Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Data Deficient   [may not be here]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR C2a(ii))   (Definite Decline)   [in Scott Ck & Thomas Gully (Mt Bold); < 100 plants; huge decline; only known from 2 locations; weeds a threat]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Viola]
Name derivation:
Viola from Latin for violet, referring to the violet genus. Betonicifolia means having foliage like the plant betony (Stachys officinalis).
Found in the southern Mount Lofty Ranges and the lower South-east in South Australia, growing in damp grassy woodland. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Native. Very rare in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Perennial herb, stolons absent. Leaves in basal rosette, leaf bladelanceolate, obovate or oblong to 70 mm long and 25 mm wide, usually glabrous, base truncate, margin with shoolw serration. Flowers violet to almost white, golden at base on a long stalk. Flowering between September and January. This subspecies differ from the other subspecies found in South Australia by having a truncate leaf-base (hastate in Viola betonicifolia spp. novaguineenis).
Fruit type:
Brown ellipsoid capsule to 13 mm long, splitting into to 3.
Seed type:
Dark brown ovoid seed to 2 mm long and 1.2 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect capsules that are maturing, drying and turning pale brown with brown seeds inside. Keep an eye on the capsules as they can ripen and split open quickly.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and cover with paper to prevent seeds popping out and leave to dry for a week. Then rub the capsules gently  with your hands to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has physiological dormancy that need to be overcome for the seed to germinate
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA360 (0.503 g)304-Dec-2007TST247
Southern Lofty
PJA190 (nursery plants)1-Jan-2012-18°C
BGA1670 (2.01 g)PJA190 (nursery 09/10)
Southern Lofty
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.