Seeds of South Australia
Astroloma conostephioides (Epacridaceae)
Flame Heath
List of species for Astroloma
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Seed collecting:
November to March
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Least Concern
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Definite Decline)
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Definite Decline)
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Definite Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [not suitable habitat]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02)Gawler
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
2 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Endangered
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Endangered
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02)GawlerLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Astroloma]
Name derivation:
Astroloma from the Greek 'astron' meaning star and 'loma' meaning fringe, alluding to the tufts of hair inside the corolla tube. Conostephioides means similar to Conostephium, (a genus of flowering plants in the heath or heather family Ericaceae) and coming from the Greek 'conos' meaning cone and 'stephanos' meaning something that encircles; a crown or wreath.
Distribution:
Found on Eyre peninsula, Mount Lofty Ranges, Murray and the South-East in South Australia growing in mallee scrub and in dry open forest on sandy loam or quartzite sand. Also found in Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in Victoria.
Plant description:
Erect or spreading shrub to 100 cm high. Leaves linear to oblong-ovate, to 21 mm long and 2 mm wide; often crowded towards apices; margins recurved to revolute. Single flowers, corolla tube bright-red to 14 mm long, campanulate to conical. Flowering between April and November.
Fruit type:
Dark- red fleshy elongated drupe.
Seed type:
Woody, brown ovoid seed to 8 mm long and 4 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Linear, underdeveloped.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature fruits when the bracts are dark-red and dry.
Seed cleaning:
Place fruits in a bucket of water and leave to soak overnight. Then rub the fruit to remove the flesh. Rub and change the water a few times until all the fresh are removed. Leave the cleaned seed to dry and then store with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 95%.
Seed germination:
This species has morphophysiological dormancy and can be difficult to germinate.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
February 201685%21d28d Seeds excised from woody endocarp; soak in gibberellic acid (500 mg/L) 70 h
1% water agar
12 h  /  15°C constant
February 201664%21d42d Seeds excised from woody endocarp; soak in gibberellic acid (500 mg/L) + smoke water (10% (v/v)) 70 h
1% water agar
12 h  /  15°C constant
July 201533%18dNA Gently cracked woody endocarp with a vice; soak gibberellic acid (900 mg/L) and smoke water (10% (v/v) for 48 hours
moist sand
12 h  /  15°C constant
February 201630%28dNA Seeds excised from woody endocarp;soak in water 70 h
1% water agar
12 h  /  15°C constant
August 20134%156 dNA Hydrogen peroxide 30% (v/v) 15 min then washed 3 times with water
Sterile sand
12 hours 10 weeks then 10 hours 4 weeks  /  10C (12 h) 22°C (12 h) 10 weeks then 5°C (4h) 15°C (20h)
August 20130%NANA Hydrogen peroxide 30% (v/v) 15 min then washed 3 times with water then soaked 3 d in gibberellic acid (1000 mg/L).
Sterile sand
12 hours 10 weeks then 10 hours 4 weeks  /  10C (12 h) 22°C (12 h) 10 weeks then 5°C (4h) 15°C (20h)
August 20130%NANA Heat treatment 2 min at 100°C then hydrogen peroxide 30% (v/v) 15 min then washed 3 times with water then soaked 3 d in gibberellic acid (1000 mg/L).
Sterile sand.
12 hours 10 weeks then 10 hours 4 weeks.  /  10C (12 h) 22°C (12 h) 10 weeks then 5°C (4h) 15°C (20h).
August 20130%NANA Hydrogen peroxide 30% (v/v) 15 min then washed 3 times with water then leached for 13 d with water then soaked 3 d in gibberellic acid (1000 mg/L).
Sterile sand
12 hours 10 weeks then 10 hours 4 weeks  /  10C (12 h) 22°C (12 h) 10 weeks then 5°C (4h) 15°C (20h)
July 20150%NANA Soak gibberellic acid (900 mg/L) and smoke water (10% (v/v) for 48 hours
moist sand
12 h  /  15°C constant
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)