Seeds of South Australia
Astroloma humifusum (Epacridaceae)
Native Cranberry
List of species for Astroloma
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Seed collecting:
November to March
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Least Concern
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Least Concern
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Near Threatened
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Least Concern
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
2 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria DesertRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Astroloma]
Name derivation:
Astroloma from the Greek 'astron' meaning star and 'loma' meaning fringe, alluding to the tufts of hair inside the corolla tube. Humifusum from the Latin 'humus' meaning low- growing, alluding to its prostrate habit.
Distribution:
Found on the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas, Flinders and Mount Lofty Ranges, Kangaroo Island, the Murray and South-east in South Australia, growing in open forest and mallee scrub on loam or sandy soils over granite or limestone. Also found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Prostrate mat-forming shrub to 40cm across. Leaves linear, narrow-elliptic or oblanceolate to 18 mm long and 3 mm wide; thin, striate-veined on lower surface; apex often recurved. Flowers solitary, or rarely 2-3, corolla tube cylindrical, bright-red, to 12 mm long, densely bearded inside except at the tip. Flowering between June and November.
Fruit type:
Dark-green to purple globular drupe.
Seed type:
Brown, woody ellipsoid seed to 6 mm long and 4 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Linear, underdeveloped.
Seed collecting:
Collect ripe drupes, those that are fat and turning purple. Fruits may also be gathered from the ground under the foliage.
Seed cleaning:
Remove unwanted material from the seed collection, leaving only fruits. Place fruits in a bucket of water and leave to soak over night. Then rub the fruit to remove the flesh. Rub and change the water a few times until all the fresh are removed. Leave the cleaned seed to dry and then store with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 92%.
Seed germination:
This species has morphophysiological dormancy and is difficult to germinate
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
May 201685%21d21d Seeds excised from woody endocarp; GA (500 mg/L) 24 h
1% water agar
12 h  /  15°C 24 h
August 20146%63dNA Hydrogen peroxide (30%) for 30 min; dry after ripening 35ºC 6 weeks; gibberellic acid (1000 mg/L) + smoke water 33% (v/v) for 48 h
moist sand
Incubated under winter conditions
August 20146%63dNA Hydrogen peroxide (30%) for 30 min; 1 day wet to 6 days dry at 35ºC repeated over 6 weeks
moist sand
Incubated under winter conditions
August 20146%140dNA Hydrogen peroxide (30%) for 30 min; dry after ripening in summer incubator (photoperiod 14 h; thermoperiod 30ºC 14 h/ 15ºC 10 h) for 8 weeks; gibberellic acid (1000 mg/L) + smoke water 33% (v/v) for 48 h
moist sand
Incubated under winter conditions
June 20152%34dNA Hydrogen peroxide (30%) 20 mins; gentle cracking of the woody endocap; gibberellic acid (900 mg/L) + smoke water 10% (v/v) for 48 h
moist sand
10 h  /  15°C 24 h
August 20142%140dNA Hydrogen peroxide (30%) for 30 min; 1 day wet to 6 days dry at 35ºC repeated over 6 weeks; gibberellic acid (1000 mg/L) + smoke water 33% (v/v) for 48 h
moist sand
Incubated under winter conditions
August 20140%NANA Hydrogen peroxide (30%) for 30 min
moist sand
Incubated under winter conditions
August 20140%NANA Hydrogen peroxide (30%) for 30 min; dry after ripening 35ºC 6 weeks
moist sand
Incubated under winter conditions
August 20140%NANA Hydrogen peroxide (30%) for 30 min; dry after ripening in summer incubator (photoperiod 14 h; thermoperiod 30ºC 14 h/ 15ºC 10 h)
moist sand
Incubated under winter conditions
June 20150%NANA Hydrogen peroxide (30%) 20 mins; gibberellic acid (900 mg/L) + smoke water 10% (v/v) for 48 h
moist sand
10 h  /  15°C 24 h
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)