Seeds of South Australia
Nitraria billardierei (Zygophyllaceae)
Nitrebush
List of species for Nitraria
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Seed collecting:
December to April
Herbarium regions:
Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Near Threatened
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [coastal]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [coastal; gets planted]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [coastal; gets planted]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [roadsides, spread by birds, subject to coastal development]
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [roadsides, spread by birds, subject to coastal development]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern   [on dunes, weedy species]
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern   [on dunes, weedy species]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern   [on dunes, weedy species]
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern   [on dunes, weedy species]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern   [on dunes, weedy species]
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern   [on dunes, weedy species]
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Near Threatened   [on dunes, weedy species]
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Near Threatened   [on dunes, weedy species]
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Least Concern   [on dunes, weedy species]
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Least Concern   [on dunes, weedy species]
Hampton (HAM01)Hampton
 Least Concern   [on dunes, weedy species]
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Least Concern
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Least Concern
Simpson Desert (SSD02)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Dieri (SSD03) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Warriner (SSD04) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern
Diamantina-Eyre (CHC04) 
 Least Concern
Lake Pure (CHC07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal PlainNear Threatened
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooRare
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
  (Probable Increase)
6 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
2 of 3 subregionsNullarborLeast Concern
Hampton (HAM01)HamptonLeast Concern
  [on dunes, weedy species]
3 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
, Rare
7 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
, Rare
3 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
, Rare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Nitraria]
Name derivation:
Nitraria from the Latin 'nitrum' meaning native soda and the Greek 'nitron' meaning soda sources; referring to plants first found on the saline plains of Siberia. Billardierei named after Jacques Julien de La Billardiere (1755-1834), a French botanist who visited Western Australia and Tasmania with D'Entrecasteaux expedition and named many new plant species.
Distribution:
Found across much of South Australia, except the northwest and lower Southeast, growing on saline or over-grazed plain and floodplain areas, on loamy or clayey soils. Also found in all mainly states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Uncommon in the Northern Territory and Queensland (maybe introduced). Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Rigid spreading shrub to 2 m high. Leaves to 4 cm long, oblanceolate to narrow-oblanceolate, glaucous or green, fleshy, densely covered with appressed hairs. Flowers small, white, borne in small clusters along the branches, to 4 mm long. Flowering between September and November.
Fruit type:
Deep red or golden, ovoid berries to 2 cm long.
Seed type:
Orange-brown cone-shaped woody seed to 10 mm long, covered in pits and grooves.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect maturing fruits that are turning golden, red or darker and containing a hard seed.
Seed cleaning:
Place the berries in a bucket of water and rub the flesh off with your hands. Drain the water and wash again if required to remove all the flesh. Then spread the wet seeds on some paper towel and leave to dry. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability were high, ranging from 95% to 97%. Each woody seed contain a number of embryos.
Seed germination:
This species have physical and physiological dormancies that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
4600 (359.4 g)
5050 (396 g)
28+3-Feb-2005DJD 108
South Eastern
28-Mar-200695%-18°C
BGA62003027-Feb-2013DJD2669
Murray
24-Mar-201597%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Aug-1348%7 dNA leached in water 15 d, dry heat 120°C oven 2 min, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 3 d;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Aug-0548%10 dNA seed coat nicked with scalpel, 30% hydrogen peroxide 20 min, water rinse; leached in water 6 h;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under winter conditions
Aug-1338%7 dNA leached in water 15 d, dry heat 120°C oven 2 min, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 3 d;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Aug-1328%21 dNA leached in water 15 d;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Aug-1316%7 dNA leached in water 15 d, dry heat 120°C oven 2 min;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Aug-056%126 dNA leached in water 6 h;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under winter conditions
May-130%NANA 10% hydrogen peroxide 30 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-130%NANA 10% hydrogen peroxide 30 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under summer conditions
May-130%NANA 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 3 d, 10% hydrogen peroxide 30 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-130%NANA 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 3 d, 10% hydrogen peroxide 30 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under summer conditions
May-130%NANA 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 3 d, 10% hydrogen peroxide 30 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under summer conditions
May-130%NANA 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 3 d, 10% hydrogen peroxide 30 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-130%NANA 30% hydrogen peroxide 30 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May-130%NANA 30% hydrogen peroxide 30 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sponge;
Incubated under summer conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)