Seeds of South Australia
Leucopogon parviflorus (Epacridaceae)
Coastal Beard-heath
List of species for Leucopogon
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Seed collecting:
November to February
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [likes dry conditions & drainage; long-lived spp (100yr); regenerates readily]
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [likes dry conditions & drainage; long-lived spp (100yr); regenerates readily]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [likes dry conditions & drainage; long-lived spp (100yr); regenerates readily]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [likes dry conditions & drainage; long-lived spp (100yr); regenerates readily]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [likes dry conditions & drainage; long-lived spp (100yr); regenerates readily]
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Near Threatened   [good pop in Aldinga Scrub]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Definite Decline)   [Coastal development a threat]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   (Probable Increase)   [likes dry conditions & drainage; long-lived spp (100yr); regenerates readily]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainLeast Concern
  (Probable Increase)   [likes dry conditions & drainage; long-lived spp (100yr); regenerates readily]
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty BlockNear Threatened
  [good pop in Aldinga Scrub]
4 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03)Murray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
  (Probable Increase)   [likes dry conditions & drainage; long-lived spp (100yr); regenerates readily]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Leucopogon]
Name derivation:
Leucopogon from the Greek 'leukoni' meaning white and 'pogon' meaning beard; alluding to the white-bearded corolla lobes. Parviflorus from the Latin 'parvi' meaning small and 'floris' meaning flower.
Distribution:
Grows on coastal sand dunes and in coastal heath from Eyre peninsula to the lower South-east in South Australia. Also found in all states except in the Northern Territory. Also found in New Zealand
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Erect shrub or small tree to 5 m high. Leaves to 29 mm long and 7.5 mm wide, elliptic to oblanceolate, apex obtuse, lower surface paler with striate-veined. Inflorescence a densely clustered spike with white flowers, corolla tube to 1.7 mm long, finely pubescent inside. Flowers throughout the year but mainly between September and December.
Fruit type:
Fleshy round berries to 5 mm long, green then becoming translucent white when ripe.
Seed type:
Pale yellow woody globular seeds to 4 mm diameter, with ridges.
Embryo type:
Linear under-developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect berries that are white with a hard seed.
Seed cleaning:
Place the berries in a bucket of water and leave to soak over night. Rub the flesh off by hand. Drain and wash again if required to remove all the fleshy parts. Then spread the wet seeds onto paper towels and leave to dry. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
Seed viability can be variable depending on the collections. From five collections, the seed viability ranged from low to high - 10% to 90%.
Seed germination:
This species has morphophysiological dormancy and is difficult to germinate.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA500 (12.1 g)40-5021-Jan-2005MKJ 77
South Eastern
28-Mar-200610%-18°C
BGA 
MSB
362 (9 g)
1075 (26.9 g)
~1003-Feb-2005DJD 103
South Eastern
28-Mar-200625%-18°C
BGA5000 (128.32 g)30-4031-Jan-2008PJA167
South Eastern
Jun-201090%-18°C
BGA2700 (31.7 g)26-Jan-2003Kingston (Mike's Block)
South Eastern
15-Feb-201180%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Sep-13100%49 d77 d 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 10% smoke water 24 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Sep-1380%49 d77 d dry heat 100°C oven 2 min, 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 72 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jun-1444%63 dNA dry heat 90°C oven 15 min, 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water 48 h;
filter paper over moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Sep-1340%63 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, leached in water 14 d, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 72 h;
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Sep-1333%70 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, leached in water 13 d;
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jun-1422%63 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid + 10% smoke water 48 h;
filter paper over moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jun-1410%63 dNA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 1000 mg/L gibberellic acid 48 h;
filter paper over moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Aug-060%NANA cold stratification at 5°C 6 weeks, 1% hydrogen peroxide 48h;
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Aug-060%NANA cold stratification at 5°C 6 weeks;
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Sep-130%NANA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse;
moist sand;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jun-140%NANA 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse;
filter paper over moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Jun-140%NANA dry heat 90°C oven 15 min, 30% hydrogen peroxide 15 min, water rinse, 10% smoke water 48 h;
filter paper over moist sand;
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)