Seeds of South Australia
Austrostipa hemipogon (Gramineae)
Half-beard Spear-grass
List of species for Austrostipa
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Seed collecting:
October to March
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Data Deficient   [check record]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [edge of range]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Near Threatened
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern   [fairly common; undercollected; in stringybark habitat; confused with A mollis]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern   [fairly common; undercollected; in stringybark habitat]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   [possibly more records]
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern   [possibly more records]
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [edge of range]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [edge of range]
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainNear Threatened
, Rare
, Data Deficient
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
5 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
2 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria DesertLeast Concern
Yalata (NUL03)NullarborLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Austrostipa]
Name derivation:
Austrostipa from the Latin 'auster' meaning south and the genus Stipa, referring to the genus being allied to Stipa but restricted to Australia. Hemipogon from the Greek 'hemi' meaning half and 'pogon' meaning beard, referring to its lemma with shorter hairs towards the apex.
Distribution:
Found in the southern part of South Australia, south of the Gammon Ranges growing on sand and clay in mallee scrub, woodland, heathland and grassland. Also found in Western Australia and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Rare in Victoria. Common in Western Australia.
Plant description:
Tufted perennial grass to 1 m high with culms unbranched and pubescent nodes. Leaves scabrid, sparsely pubescent with blade weakly to strongly inrolled, to 20 cm long and 3 mm wide. Inflorescence a loosely contracted panicle to 25 cm long, with purplish or green glumes to 20 mm long, upper glumes to 15 mm long. Flowering between September and February.

Key to this species: awn twice bent with no coma (no hairs around the lemma apex); awn 30-60 mm with bristle sometimes curved; awn hairs spiralling up the nerves (1-4 mm) sometimes up the bristle; lemma stout (5-7.5 mm) with red-brown smooth granular surface, panicle loose, upper glume 10-15 mm

Fruit type:
Red-brown lemma to 7.5 mm long with finely granular surface and covered in white to golden hairs; callus long straight sharp to 3 mm long; awn twice bent to 60 mm long with bristle sometime curved; column densely plumose with a spiralling line of hairs to 4 mm long up the nerve; palea about equal to lemma, with a line of hairs down the centre. 
Seed type:
Yellow-brown ellipsoid grain to 4 mm long within the lemma.
Embryo type:
Lateral.
Seed collecting:
Use your hands to gently strip the seeds (lemma) off the mature fruiting spike, those that are turning brown. Mature seeds will come off easily compare to the immature seeds that remain on the spike. Alternatively, you can break off the whole fruit spike to allow some of the seeds to mature further.
Seed cleaning:
Place the seeds/spike in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. No further cleaning is required if only seed collected. If seed spikes collected, use hand to strip off the mature seeds. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
Viability of grass seeds could be very viable, depending on time of seed collections and seasonal conditions. From two collections, the seed viability was average to high, ranging from 70% to 85%. 
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA4000 (11.3 g)16125-Nov-2004PJA 91
Eyre Peninsula
28-Mar-200685%
BGA 
MSB
1850 (4.96 g)
1850 (5.06 g)
>1009-Nov-2004MKJ 41
Eyre Peninsula
28-Mar-200670%
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.