Seeds of South Australia
Austrostipa nodosa (Gramineae)
Knotty Spear-grass
List of species for Austrostipa
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Seed collecting:
October to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Glenelg Plain (NCP02)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Data Deficient   [probably introduced]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Near Threatened
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Data Deficient
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Near Threatened
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern   [along roadsides]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Least Concern
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Everard Block (CER03)Central Ranges
 Data Deficient   [outlier; odd record]
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Data Deficient   [outlier; odd record]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
3 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainNear Threatened
, Rare
, Data Deficient
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Data Deficient
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
  [along roadsides]
5 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
3 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03)Stony PlainsRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Everard Block (CER03)Central RangesData Deficient
  [outlier; odd record]
Tieyon (FIN03)FinkeData Deficient
  [outlier; odd record]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Austrostipa]
Name derivation:
Austrostipa from the Latin 'auster' meaning south and the genus Stipa; referring to the genus being allied to Stipa but restricted to Australia. Nodosa from the Latin 'nodus' meaning knot and the suffix '-osa'' meaning abundance; referring to its culms having more nodes than on related species.
Distribution:
Found in the south-eastern part of South Australia, growing in a variety of habitats and soil types. Also found in all states except in the Northern Territory.
Status:
Native Common in South Australia. Uncommon in Queensland. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Loosely tufted perennial grass to 90 cm high with firm and rather stout, erect culms, erect and glabrous but sometimes shortly scabrous nodes. Leaves scabrous or pubescent with blade flat or slightly inrolled to 30 cm long and 2 mm wide, rather stiff. Inflorescence a slender, open sparse panicle to 50 cm long with purplish glumes to 15 mm long, usually remaining purplish until after lemma falls. Flowering between August and November.

Key to this species: awn falcate (curved bristle at right angle to the column), lemma narrow and needle-like, nodes exposed and conspicuous, leaves up culm with sheath 4.5-9 mm wide, panicle open usually sparse, glume remaining purplish

Fruit type:
Dark brown to black slender lemma to 7 mm long with a smooth surface covered in sparse white or yellowish hairs, callus long sharp to 3 mm long, awn falcate to 100 mm long with column slender, smooth with two toned black and yellow band.
Seed type:
Yellow-brown narrow ellipsoid grain to 2.5 mm long within the lemma.
Embryo type:
Lateral.
Seed collecting:
Use your hands to gently strip the seeds (lemma) off the mature fruiting spike, those that are turning brown. Mature seeds will come off easily compare to the immature seeds that remain on the spike. Alternatively, you can break off the whole fruit spike to allow some of the seeds to mature further.
Seed cleaning:
Place the seeds/spike in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. No further cleaning is required if only seed collected. If seed spikes collected, use hand to strip off the mature seeds. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
Viability of grass seeds could be very viable, depending on time of seed collections and seasonal conditions. From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%. 
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
7127 (14.25 g)
7127
>1007-Nov-2003SMK54
Southern Lofty
14-Aug-2006no record-18°C
BGA17350 (34.7 g)>10011-Nov-2003SMK55
Southern Lofty
14-Aug-2006not tested-18°C
BGA6380 (12.76 g)>10014-Nov-2003SMK56
Southern Lofty
14-Aug-2006not tested-18°C
BGA7000 (22.07 g)100+25-Nov-2010DJD2057
Murray
1-Jan-2012100%
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.