Seeds of South Australia
Veronica parnkalliana (Scrophulariaceae)
Port Lincoln speedwell
List of species for Veronica
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Seed collecting:
November to March
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty
NRM regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke
IBRA regions
Southern Flinders (FLB04)Flinders Lofty Block
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR B2bc(iii,iv))   (Probable Decline)   [needs fire, disjunct pop in Flinders]
Eyre Hills (EYB03)Eyre Yorke Block
 Regionally Extinct   [presumed extinct]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Veronica]
Name derivation:
Veronica possibly named after Saint Veronica, a nun who died in Milan in 1497.  Alternatively from the Latin 'vera' and 'icon', meaning true image. This is in reference to the legend of the miraculous imprint of the face of Christ on a headcloth that Saint Veronica offered Christ on his way to crucifixion. Parnkalliana named after Parnkalla, an Aboriginal tribe from the Port Lincoln area.
Endemic to South Australia. It was first recorded from Eyre Peninsula but now only known from the southern Flinders Ranges. A fire responsive species.
Native. Very rare in South Australia.
Plant description:
Short lived perennial herb with erect to ascending branches to 20 cm tall. Leaves are serrated and arranged opposite to each other. Flowers are large and white with purple stripes, appearing in spring and summer.
Fruit type:
Flat heart-shaped capsules turning from green to red and brown as it matures. Each capsule contains a few seeds.
Seed type:
Small semi-flat ovoid dark orange-brown seeds to 1.5 mm long and 1 mm wide, with a wrinkled surface.
Embryo type:
Linear under-developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect maturing capsules when drying off and turning red-brown with orange-brown seeds inside.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and cover with paper to prevent seeds from popping out and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate any unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has morphophysiological dormancy that need to be overcome for the seed to germinate. This is a fire responsive species.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA12800 (5.9 g)280+15-Dec-2008DJD1277
Flinders Ranges
20-Jul-2009100%+5°C, -18°C
PJA192 (2010)1-Jan-2012-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Mar-1093%21 d28 d
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under winter conditions
Feb-1080%27 d49 d
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Mar-1063%14 d21 d buried in-situ 3 month, dry heat 90°C oven 15 min, 10% smoke water 24 h;
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
Mar-1062%14 d28 d buried in-situ 3 month, dry heat 90°C oven 15 min, aerosol smoke 15 min;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Feb-0924%48 dNA
1% agar with 100 mg/L potassium nitrate;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)