Seeds of South Australia
Bursaria spinosa ssp. spinosa (Pittosporaceae)
Christmas bush
List of species for Bursaria
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Seed collecting:
February to April
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Least Concern
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Least Concern
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern   [common]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern   [goats a threat]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern   [goats a threat]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Least Concern
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
2 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
  (Probable Decline)
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Bursaria]
Name derivation:
Bursaria from the Latin 'bursa' meaning a pouch; referring to the fruit. Spinosa from the Latin 'spinosus' meaning thorny.
Distribution:
Found across the southern regions of South Australia east of Ceduna and south of Arkaroola. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Tall, low branching shrub or small tree to 10 m with lance-shaped aromatic leaves. Branches sometimes with small thorns. Flowers are white in large clusters, appearing in summer. Differs from the other subspecies Bursaria spinosa ssp. lasiophylla by having leaves that are glabrous on the underside.
Fruit type:
Flattened capsules, brown when mature and containing two seeds.
Seed type:
Flat orange-brown bean-shaped seeds to 5 mm long and 3 mm across.
Embryo type:
Linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect maturing capsules individually or break off whole stems. The capsules should be drying off and turning brown with orange seeds inside. Do not collect capsules that have split open as the seed has already been released.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray, cover with paper and leave to dry for 1 to 2 weeks or until the capsules split. Then place the capsules in a bucket with a lid if possible and shake gently to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability were high, ranging  from 95% to 100%.
Seed germination:
Viable should germinate readily when sown in winter.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
June 200560%23d41d None.
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May 200748%35dNA Stored at -18°C for 1 year.
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)