Seeds of South Australia
Billardiera cymosa ssp. cymosa (Pittosporaceae)
Sweet Apple-berry
List of species for Billardiera
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Seed collecting:
December to March
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Least Concern   [T Horn has more records]
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Least Concern   [T Horn has more records]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [scattered pops; not often seen; declining on roadsides & due to development]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Least Concern
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Definite Decline)
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [taxonomic issues]
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic PlainLeast Concern
  [T Horn has more records]
4 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
, Rare
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
2 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockRare
, Vulnerable
4 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Billardiera]
Name derivation:
Billardiera named after Jacques-Julien de Labillardiere (1755-1834), a 19th century French botanist who visited Western Australia and Tasmania with the D'Entrecasteaux expedition and named many new plant species. Cymosa means to bearing cymes (an inflorescence in which the first flower is the terminal bud of the main stem and subsequent flowers develop as terminal buds of lateral stems).
Found in the southern part of South Australia, from Eyre Peninsula to the South-east. Also found in Victoria.
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in Victoria.
Plant description:
Twiner or spreading shrub with sessile, linear-lanceolate leaves to 65 mm long and 10 mm wide, both surfaces of mature leaves glabrous or with scattered hairs. Inflorescence terminal cymes with bell-shaped purple flowers. This subspecies differs from the other subspecies found in South Australia by having an  ovary that is densely villous, sometimes showing only at the apex whereas Billardiera cymosa ssp. pseudocymosa has an ovary that is glabrous, rarely with a few scattered hairs. Flowering between November and January.
Fruit type:
A cylindrical drupe, green and hard when immature and soft and dark purple when ripe.
Seed type:
Dark brown flat reniform seeds to 3 mm long and 2 mm wide covered in rounded projections. (papillose)
Embryo type:
Linear, underdeveloped.
Seed collecting:
Pick mature fruits that are soft or have hard brown seeds inside.
Seed cleaning:
Clean ripe fruit as soon as possible as it will go hard if left to dry too long. Rub the fruits in water with your hands to dislodge the seeds from the fruit. Pour the mixture into a sieve to separate the seeds from the flesh. Place the wet seeds in a tray lined with paper and leave to dry for 1 to 2 days. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability was high, ranging from 85% to 95%.
Seed germination:
This species has physiological dormancy that need to be overcome for the seed to germinate.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
1589 (1.51 g)
1650 (1.6 g)
~5021-Dec-2004MKJ 56
Southern Lofty
6212 (15.22 g)
7500 (15.8 g)
>5021-Dec-2004MKJ 74
South Eastern
BGA604 (1.27 g)12-Feb-2006HPV3014
South Eastern
BGA230 (0.6938 g)114-Feb-2006DJD386
South Eastern
BGA5300 (15.9 g)181-Mar-2006DJD418
Southern Lofty
BGA10000 (30.27 g)70+1-Mar-2006DJD413
Southern Lofty
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.