Seeds of South Australia
Billardiera scandens var. scandens (Pittosporaceae)
Common Apple-berry
List of species for Billardiera
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Seed collecting:
December to February
Herbarium region:
South Eastern
NRM region:
South East
IBRA regions
Mount Gambier (SVP02)Southern Volcanic Plain
 Least Concern
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Least Concern
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Billardiera]
Name derivation:
Billardiera named after Jacques Julien de La Billardiere (1755-1834), a 19th century French botanist who visited Western Australia and Tasmania with D'Entrecasteaux expedition and named many new plant species. Scandens from Latin meaning to climb or sprawl; alluding to its habit.
Distribution:
Found in the lower South-east in South Australia in Eucalyptus woodland. Also found in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Rare in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Scrambling perennial shrub to 3 m tall. Leaves alternate, sessile or shortly petiolate, linear to ovate-lanceolate, to 60 mm long and 15 mm wide, entire or crenate, more or less lobed, upper surface glabrous to scattered-pubescent, lower surface sparsely to densely pubescent. Flowers solitary, greenish-yellow to cream,  bell-shaped appearing between August and December.
Fruit type:
Dark green, cylindrical berry to 40 mm long and 13 mm wide, covered in hairs, green and hard when immature and soft when ripe.
Seed type:
Brown flat reniform seeds to 4 mm long and 2.5 mm wide, covered in wrinkles.
Embryo type:
Linear underdeveloped.
Seed collecting:
Pick mature fruits by hand, those that are soft or have dark brown seeds inside.
Seed cleaning:
Clean ripe fruits as soon as possible as it will go hard if left to dry too long. Rub the fruits in water with your hands to dislodge the seeds from the fruit. Pour the mixture into a sieve to separate the seeds from the flesh. Place the wet seeds in a tray lined with paper and leave to dry for 1 to 2 days. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 85%.
Seed germination:
This species has physiological dormancy that need to be overcome for the seed to germinate.