Seeds of South Australia
Billardiera versicolor (Pittosporaceae)
Pale Apple-berry
List of species for Billardiera
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Seed collecting:
January to March
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [could be undercollected; limited]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [1 location - Desert Camp]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern   [restricted range]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   (Probable Decline)   [Limited area of occupancy. more a semi-arid species?]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [restricted to rocky ridge-tops]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
3 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainRare
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
, Rare
4 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
, Vulnerable
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
2 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionNear Threatened
, Rare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Billardiera]
Name derivation:
Billardiera named after Jacques Julien de La Billardiere (1755-1834), a 19th century French botanist who visited Western Australia and Tasmania with D'Entrecasteaux expedition and named many new plant species. Versicolor from Latin meaning with various colour; referring to the changing colour as the flower aged.
Distribution:
Found in the southern part of South Australia from the Flinders Ranges south to the upper South-east. Also found in New South Wales and Victoria.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Twining perennial shrub with stems to a few metres long. Leaves lanceolate to 62 mm long and 17 mm wide, upper surface glabrous, lower surface sparsely pilose. Flowers initially white, cream-coloured or pale yellow, with spreading mauve-red blotches from throat with age, bell-shaped appearing in September to December. 
Fruit type:
Cylindrical berry to 25 mm long and 8 mm wide, green and hard when immature and soft when ripe.
Seed type:
Brown flat reniform seeds to 2 mm long and 2 mm wide, covered in deep wrinkles.
Embryo type:
Linear underdeveloped.
Seed collecting:
Pick mature fruits by hand, those that are soft or have brown seeds inside.
Seed cleaning:
Clean ripe fruits as soon as possible as it will go hard if left to dry too long. Rub the fruits in water with your hands to dislodge the seeds from the fruit. Pour the mixture into a sieve to separate the seeds from the flesh. Place the wet seeds in a tray lined with paper and leave to dry for 1 to 2 days. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability were high, ranging from 95% to 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has physiological dormancy that need to be overcome for the seed to germinate.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
3000 (7.7 g)
1900
621-Jan-2006DJD366
Southern Lofty
10-Aug-200695%-18°C
BGA256 (0.4 g)1017-Jan-2007TST59
Flinders Ranges
1-Aug-2007100%-18°C
BGA2650 (3.74 g)620-Mar-2007RLT1153
Southern Lofty
1-Aug-2007100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.