Seeds of South Australia
Brachyscome ciliaris var. ciliaris (Compositae)
Fringed Daisy
List of species for Brachyscome
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Glenelg Plain (NCP02)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Data Deficient   [no records but occurs here; could be common]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Least Concern
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Near Threatened   [likes dry areas; edge of range; lots of AD records not yet databased]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [likes dry areas; edge of range; lots of AD records not yet databased]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern   [under represented; taxonomic issues]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern   [less suitable habitat]
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Data Deficient
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern   [under represented; taxonomic issues]
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Least Concern   [under represented; taxonomic issues]
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Least Concern   [under represented; taxonomic issues]
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Carlisle (NUL01)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02) 
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Least Concern
Hampton (HAM01)Hampton
 Least Concern
Barrier Range (BHC01)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
Barrier Range Outwash (BHC04) 
 Least Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05) 
 Least Concern
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Least Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern   [under represented; taxonomic issues]
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern   [under represented; taxonomic issues]
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern   [under represented; taxonomic issues]
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Least Concern   [under represented; taxonomic issues]
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern   [under represented; taxonomic issues]
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern   [under represented; taxonomic issues]
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Least Concern
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Least Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Least Concern
Pedirka (FIN04) 
 Least Concern   [under represented; taxonomic issues]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
3 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
, Data Deficient
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooNear Threatened
  [likes dry areas; edge of range; lots of AD records not yet databased]
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
5 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaData Deficient
7 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
3 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
3 of 3 subregionsNullarborLeast Concern
Hampton (HAM01)HamptonLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05)Simpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
  [under represented; taxonomic issues]
6 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
3 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsFinkeLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Brachyscome]
Name derivation:
Brachyscome from the Greek 'brachys' meaning short and 'kome' meaning hair; referring to the short bristles or hairs of the pappus. Ciliaris from the Latin 'cilium' meaning eye-lash; referring to the fruit having the margins fringed with hairs.
Distribution:
Found across much of South Australia except the north-east corner and the lower South-east, growing in woodland, mallee and forest communities. Also found in all mainland states.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Uncommon in Northern Territory. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
A daisy growing up to 45 cm high, with stems, leaves, peduncle and involucres covered in fine hairs. Leaves with shallow to deep lobes. Inflorescence on a long stalk with white ray florets and yellow disc florets. This variety differ from the other four varieties found in South Australia, by having pinnatisect leaves, with linear segments, non woolly stems and long flat ligules. Flowers throughout the year.
Fruit type:
Brown daisy heads.
Seed type:
Ray and disc seeds are morphologically different.  Ray seeds are smooth and narrow with flattened tuberculate faces and have a minute pappus.  Disc seeds have broad flat wings with curled hairs and a longer pappus.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Pick heads that are maturing, drying off, with brown seeds that dislodge easily.
Seed cleaning:
Place the seed-heads in a tray and leave to dry for a week. Then gently rub the heads by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From two collections, the seed viability were average to high, ranging from 60% to 100%.
Seed germination:
This species may have physiological dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate. No difference in germination between ray and disc seeds. Germination occurs more rapidly under winter conditions.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
3921 (0.3529 g)
4900 (0.45 g)
26-Oct-2004DJD 26
Gairdner-Torrens
31-Mar-2006100%-18°C
BGA6000 (0.5217 g)DJD134
Eyre Peninsula
14-Sep-200660%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
December 201193%7d7d None
1% w/v water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
December 201192%7d42d None
1% w/v water agar
Incubated under summer conditions
December 201172%7d7d None
1% w/v water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)