Seeds of South Australia
Codonocarpus pyramidalis (Gyrostemonaceae)
Slender bell-fruit
List of species for Codonocarpus
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Seed collecting:
September to December
Herbarium regions:
Lake Eyre, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Northern Lofty, Murray
NRM regions:
Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin
IBRA regions
Broughton (FLB02)Flinders Lofty Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [fast-growing, short-lived, soft wood, goats climb & wreck; needs fire; good regeneration after 3 yrs wet summers (2009-2011); panel could not say declining]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [fast-growing, short-lived, soft wood, goats climb & wreck; needs fire; good regeneration after 3 yrs wet summers (2009-2011); panel could not say declining]
Braemer (MDD07)Murray Darling Depression
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Torrens (GAW06)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [fast-growing, short-lived, soft wood, goats climb & wreck; needs fire; good regeneration after 3 yrs wet summers (2009-2011); panel could not say declining]
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Murnpeowie (STP03)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [fast-growing, short-lived, soft wood, goats climb & wreck; needs fire; good regeneration after 3 yrs wet summers (2009-2011); panel could not say declining]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Codonocarpus]
Name derivation:
Codonocarpus from the Greek 'kodon' meaning a crier's bell and 'karpos' meaning a fruit; alluding to the shape of the fruit. Pyramidalis from the Greek 'pyramis' meaning pyramid; alluding to the shape of the plant.
Distribution:
Found scattered across the east central part of South Australia in the Flinders and Olary Ranges, growing on sandy soil. Has been recorded in New South Wales but is now presumed extinct.
Status:
Native. Very rare in South Australia. Presumed extinct in New South Wales. More common post fire.
Plant description:
Small weak tree up to 8 m tall usually with multi-stems. Tree looks similar to a pine tree from a distance but with bright green coloured foliage. Leaves narrow and needle-like. Flowers are small, green-yellow, disc-shaped. Flowering between May and October.
Fruit type:
Bell-shaped fruit formed from multiple seed segments.
Seed type:
Orange to dark brown reniform seeds to 5 mm long and 3 mm wide with a yellowish aril.
Embryo type:
Curved linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect fruits when the segments are about to fall apart, usually when colour changes to pale brown.
Seed cleaning:
Place the fruits in a tray and leave to dry for a week. Then rub the fruit gently by hand to dislodge the seeds from the papery wing. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From five collections, the seed viability was average to high, ranging from 75% to 100%.
Seed germination:
This species is generally difficult to germinate, it has morphophysiological dormancy and complex germination requirements. This species is considered a fire responsive species.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
18000 (105 g)
9700 (56.5 g)
207-Dec-2004PJA95
Flinders Ranges
1-Aug-2007100%+5°C, -18°C
BGA1900 (15.49 g)14-Dec-2007PJA164
Flinders Ranges
20-Jul-200990%-18°C
BGA15100 (114.18 g)27-Nov-2007Site 1
Flinders Ranges
20-Jul-200975%-18°C
BGA3500 (30.47 g)14-Dec-2007PJA165
Flinders Ranges
20-Jul-200995%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
April 200775%14d35d Buried in-situ for 12mths followed by 10mins in 90°C oven.
Wet river sand.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
September 200672%29d43d Buried in-situ for 6mths followed by 10mins in 90°C oven and 15mins exposure to aerosol smoke in a smoke tent.
Wet river sand.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
January 200764%21d35d Buried in-situ for 9mths followed by 10mins in 90°C oven.
Wet river sand.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
April 200747%28dNA Buried in-situ for 12mths followed by 10mins in 90°C oven and 15mins exposure to aerosol smoke in a smoke tent.
Wet river sand.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
September 200644%22dNA Buried in-situ for 6mths followed by 10mins in 90°C oven.
Wet river sand.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
April 200735%21dNA Buried in-situ for 12mths followed by 15mins exposure to aerosol smoke in a smoke tent.
Wet river sand.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
January 200717%28dNA Buried in-situ for 9mths followed by 10mins in 90°C oven and 15mins exposure to aerosol smoke in a smoke tent.
Wet river sand.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 200616%27dNA Buried in-situ for 3mths followed by 10mins in 90°C oven.
Wet river sand.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 200615%35dNA 10 mins in 90°C oven.
Wet river sand.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
September 200610%29dNA Buried in-situ for 6mths followed by 15 mins exposure to aerosol smoke in a smoke tent.
Wet river sand.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
January 20073%28dNA Buried in-situ for 9mths followed by 15mins exposure to aerosol smoke in a smoke tent.
Wet river sand.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 20062%45dNA None.
Wet river sand.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)