Seeds of South Australia
Brachyscome graminea (Compositae)
Grass Daisy
List of species for Brachyscome
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Seed collecting:
January to March
Herbarium regions:
Murray, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [weeds a threat]
Glenelg Plain (NCP02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   (Probable Decline)   [weeds a threat]
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [weeds a threat]
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [occurs mainly Finnis River area, also found in Meadows Ck area]
Murray Mallee (MDD02)Murray Darling Depression
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [records on loan; could be higher rating; needs swamp conditions]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Brachyscome]
Name derivation:
Brachyscome from the Greek 'brachys' meaning short and 'kome' meaning hair; referring to the short bristles or hairs of the pappus. Graminea from the Latin 'gramen' meaning grass; alluding to the grass-like appearance of the species.
Distribution:
Few records from the southern Mount Lofty Ranges and the lower South-east in South Australia, growing in moist areas from swamps to saline marshes and along watercourses.  Also found in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Rare in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Stoloniferous perennial herb to 70 cm high with weak, ascending to erect, often branched, sparsely hairly stems. Leaves often crowded near the base of the stem, sessile, erect, linear to oblanceolate, narrow at the base, entire, acute, to 14 cm long and 7 mm wide, glabrous, with a prominent mid-vein, grass-like. Flowers white daisy on long stalk appearing mostly through the warmer months but may be all year if conditions are suitable.
Fruit type:
Brown daisy heads.
Seed type:
Yellow to pale brown, flat ovoid seed to 2.5 mm long and 2 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Pick heads that are maturing, drying off, with brown seeds that dislodge easily.
Seed cleaning:
Place the seed-heads in a tray and leave to dry for a week. Then gently rub the heads by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability were average to high, ranging from 65% to 90%.
Seed germination:
This species may have physiological dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate.Summer or spring/autumn conditions promote high germination rates.  The species has a requirement for fluctuating day/night temperatures, rather than constant temperatures.  Germination can be improved with moist stratification (5 degrees celcius for up to six months) or dry after-ripening (30 - 45 degrees celcius for six months).
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA4100 (2 g)100+11-Feb-2009DJD1495
South Eastern
Jun-201080%-18°C
BGA 
MSB
7000 (2.43 g)
1000 (0.52 g)
100+31-Jan-2008PJA169
South Eastern
Jun-201065%-18°C
BGA4000 (2.06 g)100+27-Mar-2008PJA168
South Eastern
Jun-201090%+5°C, -18°C
DJD14951-Jan-2012+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
July 201084%14d21d None
1% w/v water agar
Incubated under summer conditions
July 201683%21d35d Soak seeds in 500 mg/L GA overnight
1% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
July 201677%14d28d Soak seeds in water overnight
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 201667%7d28d Soak seeds in 500 mg/L GA overnight
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 201660%28d42d Soak seeds in water overnight
1% water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
July 201060%14d35d None
1% w/v water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 20100%NANA None
1% w/v water agar
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)