Seeds of South Australia
Brachyscome xanthocarpa (Compositae)
Yellow-fruit Daisy
List of species for Brachyscome
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Seed collecting:
September to November
Herbarium region:
Eyre Peninsula
NRM region:
Eyre Peninsula
IBRA region
Talia (EYB04)Eyre Yorke Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [records on loan, ask PAinsley]
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Brachyscome]
Name derivation:
Brachyscome from the Greek 'brachys' meaning short and 'kome' meaning hair, referring to the tufts of short bristles or hairs of the pappus. Xanthocarpa from the Greek 'xanthos' meaning yellow and 'carpos' meaning fruit, referring to the distinctive yellow colour of the achenes.
Endemic to South Australia and confined to the Eyre Peninsula in the Venus Bay/Streaky Bay region and Hincks Conservation Park, growing in mallee on sand dunes.
Native. Very rare in South Australia.
Plant description:
Annual herb to 12 cm high with erect to ascending, short, reddish, sparsely hairy stems. Basal leaves oblanceolate, narrowed at the base, entire to lobed, to 18 mm long, very sparsely pubescent, soon withering. Other leaves obovate to ovate, lobed, to 9 mm long, pubescent. Flowers white to lilac appearing in spring.
Fruit type:
Small yellow-brown daisy-head.
Seed type:
Yellow to pale-brown, semi-flat, curved ovoid seed 2 mm long and 0.5 mm wide, covered with wrinkles.
Embryo type:
Spatulate fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Pick heads that are maturing, drying off, with brown seeds that dislodge easily.
Seed cleaning:
Place the seed-heads in a tray and leave to dry for a week. Then gently rub the heads by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 80%.
Seed germination:
This species has physiological dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate. For a dormant seed-lot germination can be stimulated by after-ripening for 1 - 6 months at 45°C, followed by germination on water agar containing 250 mg/L gibberellic acid. Other suitable treatments include after-ripening at 15 - 30°C for 6 months followed by germination on gibberellic acid, or stratification at 15°C for 6 months followed by germination on gibberellic acid.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
BGA450 (0.0351 g)9-Oct-2006DJD557
Eyre Peninsula
1-Aug-200780%+5°C, -18°C
PJA1771-Jan-2012+5°C, -18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Jan-1252%14 d35 d after ripening 45°C, 30% relative humidity 12 month;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Jul-101%56 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under winter conditions
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
1% agar;
Incubated under summer conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)