Seeds of South Australia
Santalum acuminatum (Santalaceae)
Quandong
List of species for Santalum
Display more images
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Least Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [declining due to small pops & low recruitment; no fruit seen; suckers]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [well collected; declining due to small pops & low recruitment; no fruit seen; suckers]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Least Concern
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Least Concern
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)   [goats a threat]
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Murray Lakes and Coorong (MDD03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Near Threatened
Wimmera (MDD05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Braemer (MDD07) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [limited habitat ]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Least Concern
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Least Concern
Commonwealth Hill (GAW08) 
 Least Concern
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Least Concern
Kintore (GVD04) 
 Least Concern
Tallaringa (GVD05) 
 Least Concern
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Least Concern
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02)Nullarbor
 Least Concern
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Least Concern
Hampton (HAM01)Hampton
 Least Concern
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Least Concern
Warriner (SSD04)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Baltana (STP07) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
Mann-Musgrave Block (CER01)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02) 
 Least Concern
Everard Block (CER03) 
 Least Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
Tintinara (NCP04)Naracoorte Coastal PlainLeast Concern
Fleurieu (KAN02)KanmantooRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)   [declining due to small pops & low recruitment; no fruit seen; suckers]
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
6 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaVulnerable
  (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [limited habitat ]
7 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertLeast Concern
2 of 3 subregionsNullarborLeast Concern
Hampton (HAM01)HamptonLeast Concern
2 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
Warriner (SSD04)Simpson Strzelecki DunefieldsRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
4 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
, Rare
3 of 3 subregionsCentral RangesLeast Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)FinkeRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [edge of range]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Santalum]
Name derivation:
Santalum from the Greek santalon, which is derived from the Sanskrit chandana meaning fragrant, named for the Indian sandalwood.  Acuminatum means tapering to a long point.
Distribution:
Found scattered across all regions of South Australia except Kangaroo Island. Also occurs in Western Australia, Northern territory, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.  
Status:
Common in South Australia. Common interstate.
Plant description:
Tall shrub or small tree to 5m high and semi-parasitic on other plants. Leaves are thick, leathery and olive green, arranged in pairs. Flowers are cream in pyramid clusters at the end of stems. Flowering can occur all year round.
Fruit type:
Round fruit with a thin layer of edible red flesh, to 3cm across. 
Seed type:
Hard round woody seed to 2.5cm across with a deep wrinkled surface.
Seed collecting:
Fruits can be collected off the plant or from the ground under the plant. Collect fruits which are red with a hard seed inside.
Seed cleaning:
Clean the fruit as soon as possible because the flesh will be hard to remove once it has dried. When soft, the flesh can be easily peeled off the seed. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has physiological dormancy that need to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking the seed coat).
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA335 (659.15 g)14-Oct-2004DJD 14
Yorke Peninsula
28-Mar-2006banked?-18°C
BGA 
MSB
874 (2044 g)
1765 (3912 g)
~10027-Oct-2004MOL 4630
Gairdner-Torrens
28-Mar-2006100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Aug-058%48 dNA warm stratification in summer incubator 4 month, aerosol smoke 1 h;
moist sand;
/ 8 weeks spring/autumn, 8 weeks winter, 8 weeks spring/autumn
Aug-055%34 dNA warm stratification in summer incubator 2 month, aerosol smoke 1 h;
moist sand;
/ 8 weeks spring/autumn/autumn, 8 weeks winter, 8 weeks spring/autumn/autumn
Aug-054%67 dNA warm stratification in summer incubator 4 month;
moist sand;
/ 8 weeks spring/autumn, 8 weeks winter, 8 weeks spring/autumn
Aug-053%72 dNA warm stratification in summer incubator 5 d;
moist sand;
/ 8 weeks spring/autumn/autumn, 8 weeks winter, 8 weeks spring/autumn/autumn
Aug-053%21 dNA warm stratification in summer incubator 2 month;
moist sand;
/ 8 weeks spring/autumn, 8 weeks winter, 8 weeks spring/autumn
Aug-052%21 dNA warm stratification in summer incubator 5 d, aerosol smoke 1 h;
moist sand;
/ 8 weeks spring/autumn/autumn/autumn, 8 weeks winter, 8 weeks spring/autumn/autumn
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)