Seeds of South Australia
Santalum spicatum (Santalaceae)
Sandalwood
List of species for Santalum
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Olary Spur (FLB03)Flinders Lofty Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern   (Probable Decline)
St Vincent (EYB02)Eyre Yorke Block
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR B2ab(ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)   [lack of recruitment, rabbits]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1)   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   (Probable Decline)   [threats: rabbits, goats; little regeneration]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU C1+2a(i))   (Probable Decline)   [threats: rabbits, goats; little regeneration]
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA b)   (Probable Decline)
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1)   (Probable Decline)
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1)   (Probable Decline)
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1)   (Probable Decline)   [threats: rabbits, goats; little regeneration]
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   (Probable Decline)
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)
Maralinga (GVD03)Great Victoria Desert
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1)   [threats: rabbits, goats; little regeneration]
Yellabinna (GVD06) 
 Near Threatened   (Probable Decline)
Carlisle (NUL01)Nullarbor
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1)   [threats: rabbits, goats; little regeneration]
Nullarbor Plain (NUL02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1)   [threats: rabbits, goats; little regeneration]
Yalata (NUL03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D1)   [threats: rabbits, goats; little regeneration]
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [edge of range]
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [edge of range]
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
4 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Endangered
3 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockVulnerable
, Endangered
, Critically Endangered
7 of 8 subregionsGawlerNear Threatened
, Rare
, Vulnerable
2 of 4 subregionsGreat Victoria DesertNear Threatened
, Vulnerable
3 of 3 subregionsNullarborVulnerable
2 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsRare
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Santalum]
Name derivation:
Santalum from the Greek 'santalon', which is derived from the Sanskrit 'chandana' meaning fragrant, named for the Indian sandalwood. Spicatum from the Latin 'spica' meaning a spike.
Distribution:
Found scattered across the central region of South Australia. Also occurs in Western Australia.
Status:
Native. Rare in South Australia. Uncommon in Western Australia.
Plant description:
Tall shrub to 5 m high and semi-parasitic on other plants. Leaves are leathery and dark green in pairs. Flowers are green in pyramid clusters at the terminal of stems. Flowering can occur all year round but mainly in autumn and winter.
Fruit type:
Large round fruit with a yellow to red-brown thin fleshy outer layer.
Seed type:
Large woody round seeds to 2 cm diameter with scattered shallow pit across the seedcoat.
Seed collecting:
Fruits can be collected off the plant or from the ground below the plant. Collect fruits that have a yellow to red flesh and a hard seed in side.
Seed cleaning:
Place the fruit in a tray and leave to dry for 3-4 weeks, except for those collected from the ground with flesh that has already dried. Then rub the fruit with your hands and the flesh should crumble. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability were average to high, ranging from 56% to 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has physiological dormancy that need to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking the seed coat)
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
637 (1274+ g)
1488 (2976 g)
>6028-Oct-2004MOL 4636
Gairdner-Torrens
28-Mar-200656%-18°C
BGA650 (1644.15 g)126-Nov-2008DJD1358
Northern Lofty
20-Jul-2009100%-18°C
BGA670 (1405.23 g)64-Nov-2009DJD1603
Nullarbor
Jun-2010100%-18°C
BGA11 (21.7 g)?De Prue
Flinders Ranges
-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Aug-0556%0 d12 d warm stratification in summer incubator 4 month;
moist sand;
/ 8 weeks spring/autumn, 8 weeks winter, 8 weeks spring/autumn
Aug-0554%0 d18 d warm stratification in summer incubator 2 month, aerosol smoke 1 h;
moist sand;
/ 8 weeks spring/autumn, 8 weeks winter, 8 weeks spring/autumn
Aug-0548%0 dNA warm stratification in summer incubator 2 month;
moist sand;
/ 8 weeks spring/autumn, 8 weeks winter, 8 weeks spring/autumn
Aug-0536%0 dNA warm stratification in summer incubator 4 month, aerosol smoke 1 h;
moist sand;
/ 8 weeks spring/autumn, 8 weeks winter, 8 weeks spring/autumn
Aug-0528%19 dNA warm stratification in summer incubator 5 d;
moist sand;
/ 8 weeks spring/autumn, 8 weeks winter, 8 weeks spring/autumn
Aug-0520%26 dNA warm stratification in summer incubator 5 d, aerosol smoke 1 h;
moist sand;
/ 8 weeks spring/autumn, 8 weeks winter, 8 weeks spring/autumn
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)