Seeds of South Australia
Allocasuarina robusta (Casuarinaceae)
Mount Compass Oak-bush
List of species for Allocasuarina
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Seed collecting:
January to December
Herbarium region:
Southern Lofty
NRM region:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges
IBRA region
Fleurieu (KAN02)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [endemic to this region; conservation dependent; lots of sites on roadsides; used in reveg]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Allocasuarina]
Name derivation:
Allocasuarina from the Greek 'allos' meaning other or different, indicating the relationship with the genus Casuarina (first used by Rumphius (1743) in allusion to the supposed resemblance of the "foliage" of Casuarina equisetifolia to the plumage of the Cassowary, which is from the Malay 'kesuari', later being latinised as Casuarius). Robusta from Latin meaning well developed, robust.
Endemic to South Australia and found only in the Mount Compass area on the Fleurieu Peninsula, restricted to a wet roadside depression.
Native. Very rare in South Australia.
Plant description:
Monoecious, multi-branching shrub to 2 m tall. Articles (stem segment) terete, smooth to 12 mm long and 1.1 mm diameter with 5-7 spreading teeth (reduced leaves) around the end, not overlapping at the base. Male spikes to 4.5 cm long, dense, with 5-9 whorls per cm. Female flower red-brown to 1.2 mm long.
Fruit type:
Small, woody round cone with numerous valves.
Seed type:
Smooth semi-flat black seed to 3 mm long with a papery wing at one end.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Cones can be collected anytime as mature cones remain on the female plant. Collect cones that have closed valves from the lower part of the stem as these are more mature.
Seed cleaning:
Place cones in a paper bag and leave to dry for 2-3 weeks. This will allow the valves to dry and open, releasing the seeds. Then place the cones in a bucket and shake gently to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate seeds from unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From three collections, the seed viability was average, ranging from 45% to 70%.
Seed germination:
Seeds are non-dormant, viable seed should germinate readily.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
>3023-Jan-2004DJD 5
Southern Lofty
1-Sep-200460%+5°C, -18°C
BGA29300 (52.07 g)2523-Jan-2008DJD1045
Southern Lofty
19-Sep-200845%+5°C, -18°C
BGA8900 (14.94 g)30-4012-Jan-2009DJD1459
Southern Lofty
BGA8900 (14.94 g)30-4012-Jan-2009DJD1459
Southern Lofty
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
April 200988%14d21d None.
1% water agar supplemented with 250mg/L GA3 (pH adjusted to 6.5).
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
April 200988%14d21d None.
1% water agar supplemented with 100mg/L KNO3.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
April 200982%14d14d None.
1% water agar.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
June 201079%14d21d Stored at 5°C (5years)
1% water agar
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
October 200662%19d68d Stored at 5°C (1year)
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge. Irrigated with RO water.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
July 200462%15d30d Seed sterilised with 20% Hydrogen Peroxide with 2 drops of Tween (10min). Rinsed in sterile water.
0.8% w/v agar plates
10 hours.  /  10°C (12hrs); 20°C (12hrs)
November 200660%21d28d Stored at -18°C (1year)
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge. Irrigated with RO water.
Incubated under winter conditions
November 200655%28d46d None.
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge. Irrigated with RO water.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)