Seeds of South Australia
Teucrium grandiusculum ssp. pilosum (Labiatae)
Great hairy germander
List of species for Teucrium
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Seed collecting:
November to December
Herbarium regions:
Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Eyre Peninsula
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
Gawler Lakes (GAW03)Gawler
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Definite Decline)
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria Desert
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Definite Decline)
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Teucrium]
Name derivation:
Teucrium from the Greek 'teucrion', a name used by Dioscorides possibly after Teucer, a Trojan king who used the plant as a medicine. Grandiusculum a diminitave of the Latin 'grandis' meaning large; alluding to the flowers. Pilosum from the Greek 'pilos' meaning hair; referring to the hairy nature of the subspecies.
Endemic to South Australia and found near Ooldea and Lake Everard.
Native. Very rare in South Australia.
Plant description:
Perennial shrub to 80 cm high with quadrangular stems. Leaves covered in hairs and with numerous serrations at the tip. Flowers are white with 2 petals up and 3 petals down along a spike appearing in spring. This sub-species can be distinguished from the other sub-species (T. grandiusculum ssp. grandiusculum) by having denser and longer hairs along the stems.
Fruit type:
Brown capsules with up to four segments, each containing a seed.
Seed type:
Small pale brown convex seeds to 2.5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, covered in short hairs and with a plug at one end.
Embryo type:
Linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect capsules that are large, hard  and turning brown. These will contain developed seeds. Collect more than required as some of the seeds will be empty and not viable.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for a week. Then rub the capsules gently with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds from the capsules. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Some of seeds will be empty.  Use an aspirator to siphon off the lighter, non-viable seeds from the heavier good seeds. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was average, at 70%.
Seed germination:
This species has morphophysiological dormancy and can be difficult to germinate.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
2300 (4.43 g)
2300 (4.43 g)
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Apr-10100%14 d21 d
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Apr-1085%14 d63 d
1% agar with 250 mg/L gibberellic acid (pH 6.5);
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Apr-1080%14 d70 d 20% hydrogen peroxide 10 min, water rinse;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Apr-1070%21 d91 d dry heat 80°C oven 10 min, 20% hydrogen peroxide 10 min; water rinse
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)