Seeds of South Australia
Caladenia bicalliata ssp. bicalliata (Orchidaceae)
Western Limestone Spider-orchid
List of species for Caladenia
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Seed collecting:
August to September
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
Lucindale (NCP03)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)   [limited habitat]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   (Probable Decline)
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [could be undercollected, need more survey; possibly more habitat available; flowers earlier than other caladenias]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   [~20 plants at Newland Head & Cape Jervis, in good habitat here; Hartley pop prob gone; self pollinator]
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR C2a(i))   (Definite Decline)   [Other locations known, records missing. Subpopulations are small and scattered. No subpop bigger than 50 plants, highly fragmented. Definite decrease.]
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Critically Endangered   (IUCN: CR C2a(i); D)   (Definite Decline)   [Three known subpopulations, not recorded.]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   (Probable Decline)
Talia (EYB04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Lowan Mallee (MDD04)Murray Darling Depression
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   [no records, not yet databased]
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Caladenia]
Name derivation:
Caladenia from the Greek 'callos' meaning beauty and 'aden' meaning a gland, referring to the colourful labellum and the glistening glands at the base of the column that are present in many of the species. Bicalliata means two calli, referring to the species having two rows of labellum calli.
Found scattered in the southern part of South Australia growing on calcareous sands or in leaf litter on limestone, chiefly along the coast. Also found in Western Australia.
Native. Rare in South Australia. Rare in Western Australia.
Plant description:
Small hairy terrestrial orchid to 14 cm tall in flower, with a single, very large (for the size of the plant) hairy, linear-lanceolate leaf to 6 cm long. Inflorescence on a hairy slender stem with one, or rarely 2 cream-coloured flowers with red veins; perianth-segments abruptly contracted into cylindrical coarsely glandular filaments. Dorsal sepal to 2 cm long, one-third of which is dilated. Lateral sepals less than 2 cm long, one-half of which is dilated. Petals gradually contracted into filaments. Labellum ovate to 7 mm long and 5 mm wide on a short movable claw, with the margins very shortly and bluntly serrate; lamina conspicuously red-veined; calli club-shaped, in 2 well-defined rows. Column to 8 mm long, erect then incurved, widely winged in the upper third. Anther without a point. Flowering between August and September.
Fruit type:
Brown, hairy, papery ellipsoid capsule containing numerous tiny seeds.
Seed collecting:
Collect fat capsules as they start to dry and turn brown. Pods will split and release the seeds quickly and will require monitoring. To increase the chances of collecting mature pods, it is recommended that a small breathable bag (ie. Organza bags) be used to enclose the developing capsules.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a container that will hold fine seeds and leave to dry for a few weeks or until the capsule split. Then carefully hold the capsule and tap it gently to release the seeds. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place, refrigerator or in liquid nitrogen.