Seeds of South Australia
Bulbine alata (Liliaceae)
Native Leek Lily
List of species for Bulbine
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Seed collecting:
August to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula
NRM regions:
Alinytjara Wilurara, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Olary Spur (FLB03)Flinders Lofty Block
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i))
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [unusual record; desert spp.]
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Torrens (GAW06) 
 Least Concern
Roxby (GAW07) 
 Near Threatened   [undercollected]
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Least Concern   [edge of range]
Curnamona (BHC06) 
 Least Concern   [edge of range]
Simpson Desert (SSD02)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Near Threatened   [undercollected]
Dieri (SSD03) 
 Least Concern
Warriner (SSD04) 
 Least Concern
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05) 
 Least Concern
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Least Concern
Peake-Dennison Inlier (STP04) 
 Least Concern
Macumba (STP05) 
 Least Concern
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern
Sturt Stony Desert (CHC02)Channel Country
 Least Concern
Diamantina-Eyre (CHC04) 
 Least Concern
Coongie (CHC06) 
 Least Concern
Lake Pure (CHC07) 
 Least Concern
Everard Block (CER03)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
Tieyon (FIN03)Finke
 Least Concern
Pedirka (FIN04) 
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
3 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))   [unusual record; desert spp.]
7 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
, Rare
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria DesertRare
  (IUCN: RA d(ii))
2 of 4 subregionsBroken Hill ComplexLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsSimpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
, Near Threatened
7 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
4 of 4 subregionsChannel CountryLeast Concern
Everard Block (CER03)Central RangesLeast Concern
2 of 2 subregionsFinkeLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Bulbine]
Name derivation:
Bulbine from the Greek 'bolbos' and Latin 'bulbu' for a bulb. Alata from the Latin 'alatus ' meaning winged; referring to the winged seeds.
Distribution:
Found across the northern part of South Australia, growing on open floodplains and sandplains, exposed stony hillsides, claypans and sandy creek beds.  Also found in Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland & New South Wales.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Erect annual herb to 20 cm tall with round fleshy basal leaves. Inflorescence erect long spike with yellow flower, perianth filaments all beardless. Flowering between August to October. Distinguished from the other Bulbine species by not having a tuber, a wing around the seeds and beardless perianth filaments.
Fruit type:
Round capsules less than 1cm long containing numerous seeds.
Seed type:
Brown-black pyramid-shaped seeds to 5mm long with a wing all around.
Embryo type:
Linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those turning pale straw colour and containing brown-black seeds. Can collect individual capsules or break off the whole fruit spike.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high at 100%.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
3300 (5.52 g)
3300 (5.52 g)
50+28-Aug-2008TST437
Lake Eyre
20-Jul-2009100%-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
May 20090%NANA None.
1% water agar.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May 20090%NANA None.
1% water agar supplemented with 250mg/L GA3.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
May 20090%NANA None.
1% water agar supplemented with 100mg/L KNO3.
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)