Seeds of South Australia
Caladenia brumalis (Orchidaceae)
Winter Spider-orchid
List of species for Caladenia
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Seed collecting:
October to November
Herbarium regions:
Eyre Peninsula, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Eyre Peninsula, Northern and Yorke
IBRA region
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU A2ac)   (Definite Decline)   [Some of the populations are thousands in size, especially round Minlation. Degrading habitat, fragmented population. More than 10 subpops. Joraslafky subpop has crashed. ]
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)   (Definite Decline)   [Population not viable, very few plants remaining. Definite decrease]
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN D)
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Caladenia]
Name derivation:
Caladenia from the Greek 'kallos' meaning beauty and 'aden' meaning a gland, referring to the colourful labellum and the glistening glands at the base of the column that adorn many of the species. Brumalis from Latin meaning of the shortest day or wintery; referring to its late winter flowering period.
Endemic to South Australia and found on the lower Eyre Peninsula and York Peninsula, with old records from the southern Mount Lofty Ranges growing  on terra rosa soils or fertile sands over limestone in mallee-broombush associations, light woodland or sedge dominated grasslands.
Native. Vulnerable in South Australia. Vulnerable in Australia (EPBC Act).
Plant description:
Perennial herb growing from an underground tuber with a single erect, hairy, lance-shaped leaf to 80 mm long and 11 mm wide. Inflorescence solitary on a long stalk to 30 cm high, with a white to pinkish flower with darker stripes. Dorsal sepal lance-shaped near the base, wide and narrowing to a thread-like tip covered with many black glands. Lateral sepals are linear to lance-shaped and narrowing to a tip similar to that on the dorsal sepal. Petals are similar to the lateral sepals but slightly shorter and narrower. Labellum is whitish or pinkish, sometimes with red markings with erect lateral lobes, with seven to nine calli on the sides of the lobes and many short, white-tipped calli along the centre of the labellum. Flowering between August and September and is known to flower profusely after fire.
Fruit type:
Brown hairy, papery ellipsoid capsule containing numerous tiny seeds.
Seed collecting:
Collect fat capsules as they start to dry and turn brown. Pods will split and release the seeds quickly and will require monitoring. To increase the chances of collecting mature pods, it is recommended that a small breathable bag (ie. Organza bags) be used to enclose the developing capsules.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a container that will hold fine seeds and leave to dry for a few weeks or until the capsule split. Then carefully hold the capsule and tap it gently to release the seeds. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place, refrigerator or in liquid nitrogen.