Seeds of South Australia
Bulbine semibarbata (Liliaceae)
Leek lily
List of species for Bulbine
Display more images
Click on an image to enlarge it
Seed collecting:
October to December
Herbarium regions:
North Western, Lake Eyre, Nullarbor, Gairdner-Torrens, Flinders Ranges, Eastern, Eyre Peninsula, Northern Lofty, Murray, Yorke Peninsula, Southern Lofty, Kangaroo Island, South Eastern
NRM regions:
Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, Alinytjara Wilurara, Eyre Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands, South Australian Murray-Darling Basin, South East
IBRA regions
SUMMARY
Bridgewater (NCP01)Naracoorte Coastal Plain
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
Lucindale (NCP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [localised]
Tintinara (NCP04) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Kangaroo Island (KAN01)Kanmantoo
 Least Concern   [annual; likes disturbance]
Fleurieu (KAN02) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [population fluctuates; undercollected; lots after fire; in Deep Ck]
Mount Lofty Ranges (FLB01)Flinders Lofty Block
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii); D2)   (Probable Decline)   [undercollected; fluctuates; could be EN]
Broughton (FLB02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Olary Spur (FLB03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Southern Flinders (FLB04) 
 Least Concern
Northern Flinders (FLB05) 
 Least Concern   [higher rainfall spp]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Least Concern
Southern Yorke (EYB01)Eyre Yorke Block
 Least Concern
St Vincent (EYB02) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU B2ab(i,ii,iii))   (Probable Decline)
Eyre Hills (EYB03) 
 Least Concern
Talia (EYB04) 
 Least Concern
Eyre Mallee (EYB05) 
 Least Concern
South Olary Plain (MDD01)Murray Darling Depression
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))
Murray Mallee (MDD02) 
 Least Concern
Lowan Mallee (MDD04) 
 Least Concern
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)Riverina
 Least Concern
Myall Plains (GAW01)Gawler
 Least Concern
Gawler Volcanics (GAW02) 
 Least Concern
Gawler Lakes (GAW03) 
 Data Deficient
Arcoona Plateau (GAW04) 
 Least Concern
Kingoonya (GAW05) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria Desert
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Yalata (NUL03)Nullarbor
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill Complex
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   (Probable Decline)
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05)Simpson Strzelecki Dunefields
 Least Concern   [higher rainfall spp]
Breakaways (STP01)Stony Plains
 Least Concern
Oodnadatta (STP02) 
 Least Concern
Murnpeowie (STP03) 
 Rare   (IUCN: RA d(ii))   [edge of range]
Witjira (STP06) 
 Least Concern
Baltana (STP07) 
 Least Concern
Watarru (CER02)Central Ranges
 Least Concern
IBRA regions
DISPLAY ALL
3 of 4 subregionsNaracoorte Coastal PlainRare
, Vulnerable
2 of 2 subregionsKanmantooLeast Concern
, Rare
6 of 6 subregionsFlinders Lofty BlockLeast Concern
, Rare
, Vulnerable
5 of 5 subregionsEyre Yorke BlockLeast Concern
, Vulnerable
3 of 6 subregionsMurray Darling DepressionLeast Concern
, Rare
Murray Scroll Belt (RIV06)RiverinaLeast Concern
5 of 8 subregionsGawlerLeast Concern
, Rare
, Data Deficient
Yellabinna (GVD06)Great Victoria DesertRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Yalata (NUL03)NullarborRare
  (IUCN: RA d(i,ii))
Bimbowrie (BHC05)Broken Hill ComplexVulnerable
  (IUCN: VU D2)   (Probable Decline)
Strzelecki Desert (SSD05)Simpson Strzelecki DunefieldsLeast Concern
  [higher rainfall spp]
5 of 7 subregionsStony PlainsLeast Concern
, Rare
Watarru (CER02)Central RangesLeast Concern
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Bulbine]
Name derivation:
Bulbine from the Greek 'bolbos' and Latin 'bulbu' for a bulb. Semibarbata from the Latin 'semi' meaning half and 'barbata' meaning bearded; referring to the 
Distribution:
Found scattered across South Australia but more common in the central part, especially on Eyre Peninsula. Also found in Western Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.
Status:
Native. Common in South Australia. Common in the other states.
Plant description:
Erect annual herb to 20 cm tall with round fleshy basal leaves. Inflorescence a long erect spike with yellow flowers, with the 3 longer inner perianth filaments bearded and 3 other filaments short and glabrous. Flowering between September and November. Distinguished from the other Bulbine species by not having a tuber, no wing around the seeds and half of perianth filaments bearded.
Fruit type:
Round capsules less than 5 mm long, containing numerous seeds.
Seed type:
Brown pyramid-shaped seeds to 3mm long with a bumpy surface. 
Embryo type:
Linear fully developed.
Seed collecting:
Collect mature capsules, those that are turning a pale straw colour and contain brown seeds. Can collect individual capsules or break off the whole fruit spike.
Seed cleaning:
Place the capsules in a tray and leave to dry for two weeks. Then rub the capsules gently by hand to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
Number
of plants
Date
collected
Collection number
Collection location
Date
stored
% ViabilityStorage
temperature
BGA 
MSB
1070 (1.52 g)
1075 (1.66 g)
50+26-Oct-2004DJD 28
Gairdner-Torrens
28-Mar-2006-18°C
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
July 20054%15dNA After-ripening at 40°C for 30 days.
Wet filter paper placed over wettex sponge.
Incubated under winter conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)