Seeds of South Australia
Acacia spooneri (Leguminosae)
Spooner's wattle
List of species for Acacia
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Seed collecting:
November to December
Herbarium regions:
Flinders Ranges, Northern Lofty
NRM regions:
Northern and Yorke, South Australian Arid Lands
IBRA regions
Southern Flinders (FLB04)Flinders Lofty Block
 Endangered   (IUCN: EN A4c)   (Probable Decline)   [occurs in Winninowy Range (Nectar Brooke Stn), very localised. Recruits well after fire. Possible threat climate change due to occurring on high peaks. Threatened by goats.]
Central Flinders (FLB06) 
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)   [comes up after fire; localised to range-tops]
Gawler Lakes (GAW03)Gawler
 Vulnerable   (IUCN: VU D2)
RSCA map:
Regional Species Conservation Assessments per IBRA subregion. Please click the thumbnail map.
AVH map:
Australian distribution map (external link)
SA Census:
Census of South Australian plants (external link)     [genus Acacia]
Name derivation:
Acacia from the Greek 'akakia' and derived from 'ake' or 'akis' meaning a sharp point or thorn and 'akazo' meaning to sharpen. Dioscorides, the Greek physician and botanist used the word in the 1st century AD for the Egyptian thorn tree, Acacia arabica. Spooneri named in honour of Dr. Anthony G Spooner (1927-1997), a South Australian Physician and field botanist
Endemic to South Australia and restricted to a few areas in the Flinders Ranges.
Native. Rare in South Australia.
Plant description:
Erect but sparsely canopied shrub to 2 m, with weak drooping branches. Flowers are yellow round balls appearing in winter and spring.
Fruit type:
Large flat pods to 10 cm long which turn brown and split open when mature.
Seed type:
Hard, dark black semi-flat seeds to 6 mm long and 4 mm wide.
Embryo type:
Seed collecting:
Collect pods that are split or turning brown, with hard, black seeds inside.
Seed cleaning:
Place the pods into a tray and leave to dry for a week. Rub the dried pods by hand or with a rubber bung to dislodge the seeds. Use a sieve to separate the unwanted material. Store the seeds with a desiccant such as dried silica beads or dry rice, in an air tight container in a cool and dry place.
Seed viability:
From one collection, the seed viability was high, at 100%.
Seed germination:
This species has physical dormancy that needs to be overcome for the seed to germinate (e.g. nicking or softening the seed coat).
Seeds stored:
LocationNo. of seeds
(weight grams)
of plants
Collection number
Collection location
% ViabilityStorage
9200 (184.76 g)
9200 (184.76 g)
Flinders Ranges
Location: BGA — the seeds are stored at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, MSB — the seeds are stored at the Millennium Seed Bank, Kew, England.
Number of plants: This is the number of plants from which the seeds were collected.
Collection location: The Herbarium of South Australia's region name.
% Viability: Percentage of filled healthy seeds determined by a cut test or x-ray.
Germination table:
DateResultT0T50Pre-treatment | Germination medium | Incubator: Photoperiod / Thermoperiod
Feb-09100%6 d6 d seed coat nicked with scalpel;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Feb-0996%13 d13 d hot water (100°C) 1 min;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Feb-0996%13 d21 d hot water (100°C) 2 min;
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Feb-094%13 dNA
1% agar;
Incubated under spring/autumn conditions
Result: Maximum percentage of germination observed.
T0: Number of days before first germinant observed.
T50: Number of days to achieve 50% germination.
Pre-treatment: The initial treatment that the seeds received prior to placement on germination media.
Germination medium: The substrate that seeds were placed on for the duration of the germination experiment.
Incubator conditions:
Photoperiod: The duration of light exposure that the seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Thermoperiod: The constant or diurnal temperatures that seeds were subject to during a 24 hour period.
Winter conditions: 15°C 20 h (3am→11pm); 5°C 4 h (11pm→3am) / 10 h light (8am→6pm); 14 h dark (6pm→8am)
Spring/Autumn conditions: 22°C 12 h (8am→8pm); 10°C 12 h (8pm→8am) / 12 h light (8am→8pm); 12 h dark (8pm→8am)
Summer conditions: 30°C 14 h (6am→8pm); 15°C 10 h (8pm→6am) / 14 h light (6am→8pm); 10 h dark (8pm→6am)